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Research Projects

Modeling and Simulation Technical Support
Curtis L. Blais, Research Associate Professor
Sponsor: Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center - San Diego

Objective: 

The Naval Postgraduate School provided technical consultation for specification and design of amphibious planning models for Marine Corps specific capabilities in the next-generation command staff training system, the Joint Simulation System (JSIMS). JSIMS will be used by the U.S. Marine Corps in joint exercises.

Summary: 

The Naval Postgraduate School performed the following:

  1. Specified user interface requirements for amphibious planning capabilities in USMC JSIMS relating to waterborne and helicopterborne ship-to-shore movements.
  2. Reviewed and provided written comments on USMC JSIMS model expositions for Amphibious Operations, to include the Embarkation, Assault, Transition, and Retrograde models.
  3. Attended and participated in selected requirements and design review meetings. Advise the SSC-SD USMC JSIMS Program Manager on progress, issues, and concerns with the development.

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Scenario Authoring and Visualization Phase 2
Curtis L. Blais, Research Associate Professor
Sponsor: Defense Modeling and Simulation Office

Objective:
To perform research and development on browser-based, graphical scenario authoring and exploration tools for ship-to-objective maneuver and other emerging USMC operational employment concepts. The authoring component will enable USMC subject matter experts, working alone or collaboratively as a team, to script a complex scenario in a virtual, extended, littoral battle space.

Summary:
Phase 2 work activities included:

  • Investigation: Identified additional 3D models to be added to the object palette, including representation of control measures. Investigated representations for built-up areas and expanded warfare areas (e.g., communications and electronic warfare). Researched and identified approaches for embedding intelligent behavior into the scenario objects. Continued investigation of XML-based descriptions of the scenario and possible conversion to scenario input files for large-scale wargaming systems. Investigated architectural changes necessary to convert from DIS to the HLA for multiple users and distributed operation of the Scenario Authoring and Visualization tool (i.e., for collaborative authoring or multiple processor execution of the scenario).
  • Design: Modified and developed tools and techniques to enhance authoring software architecture and to expand capabilities in warfare area and object representations.
  • Development: Implemented software and tested the new and modified functional capabilities. Created additional scenarios depicting the interplay of represented land, air, sea, and littoral objects and operations to support testing and demonstration of advanced features of the software. Included study of the interaction of operations with control measures.
  • Demonstration: Provided a briefing of software architecture and capabilities at the DMSO Program Review in July 2002.
  • Preparing final project software documentation and installation software for delivery to the sponsor and to the Marine Corps.
  • Provided project status reporting and performed periodic in-progress reviews with participants and sponsors. NPS faculty performed technical and contractual management, with participation of faculty and students in the engineering activities.

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Mine Impact Burial Model Sensitivity Study
Peter C. Chu, Professor
Sponsor: Naval Oceanographic Office

Objective:
The Mine Impact Burial Model was developed by the Coastal System Station; subsequent upgrades have been made by the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL). Some of the major input parameters to the model are environment (sedimentation, shear strength, water depth), mine characteristics (shape, center of gravity, weight, and mine deployment parameters), deployment platform (ship, aircraft, submarine), speed of the platform, angle of mine upon entering water, rotational velocity at time of deployment, and others.

The model has undergone limited validation in R&D experiments in which most input parameters were carefully measured or monitored. Many of the input parameters will never be known for operational mine deployments; thus, even if the model is accurate using 'perfect' input parameters, it may not be useful if mine impact burial is sensitive to parameters that are seldom known in practice.

The purposes of this project were to perform sensitivity tests with the burial model and to investigate the ocean environment of the east Asian marginal seas for mine burial prediction.

Summary:
A Mine Drop Experiment (MIDEX) was conducted in June 2001 at the NPS swimming pool using 1/20th scale model mines. During the experiment, a three-dimensional hydrodynamic data set of the mine movement in the water column was collected. This data was used to evaluate the Navy's Impact Burial Prediction Model (IBPM), which creates a two-dimensional time history of a bottom mine as it falls through air, water, and sediment.  The output of the model is the predicted burial depth of the mine in the sediment, as well as the height, area, and volume protruding. 

The model input consists of environmental parameters and mine characteristics, as well as parameters describing the mine's release.  The MIDEX data showed that the current IBPM model needed to be improved.   A new research program "Mine Burial Prediction" was initiated at ONR. As a leader for the impact burial team, NPS actively participated in the program planning and experimental design. 

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Assessment and Reconstruction of Navy's Mine Impact Burial Prediction Model
Peter C. Chu, Professor
Sponsor: Office of Naval Research and Naval Oceanographic Office  

Objective:
The goals of this project were to substantially improve the U.S. Navy's mine burial predictive capabilities and to provide a complete data set of mine movement in the water phase and mine impact burial for model evaluation. The goals include development of a new mine impact burial model for improving Naval technical decision aids.

Summary:
Work completed:

  • A synchronized data set of ocean environment (including waves, currents, and bottom shear strength) and mine burial depth was established on the basis of the Mine Impact Burial Experiment (MIBEX).
  • A Mine Drop Experiment (MIDEX) was conducted in June 2001 at the NPS swimming pool with 1/20 scale model mines. Around 500 mine drops were completed with different mine parameters and drop conditions. Upon completion of the drop phase, the video from each camera was converted to digital format, and a dataset for mine movement in the water column was established.
  • A Mine test experiment at Carderock was completed.
  • The hydrodynamic system depicting the movement of a rigid body (such as a mine) in the water column was established.
  • A workshop was conducted on Mine Impact Burial Prediction at NPS on January 10, 2001. The MIBEX dataset was transferred to the ONR Expert System group. The datasets obtained from three consecutive experiments, MIBEX, MIDEX, and mine testing at Carderock will provide needed information to the scientific and Naval mine warfare communities on the mine movement in the water column.

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Capturing the Weapon System R&D and Acquisition Experience from the Cold Era
Phil E. DePoy, Director
Sponsor: Naval Surface Warfare Center - Carderock Division 

Objective:
Discussion of R&D and acquisition experience from the end of WWII until the end of the Cold War with former Naval Laboratory Directors and retired officers who were heavily involved in R&D and acquisition. In addition, a roundtable was held for students and faculty.

Summary:
Perhaps at no other period in the Navy's history has the adoption of new technology in the Navy been as pronounced and effective as during the Cold War throughout the fifty or so years following the end of World War II.  Key factors in the Navy's ability to make such advances and the circumstances that led to such remarkable achievements were identified:

  • Continuity of leadership, funding, and focus.
  • Technical competence in Naval officers, the civil service, University labs and industry.
  • The existence of discretionary funds in both industry and the government.
  • Program managers who were successful and extremely focused, knowledgeable of the technical details of their programs, and were, in effect, their own chief engineers.
  • An emphasis on results rather than cost, mutual trust and respect, and a sense of urgency backed up by the courage of convictions.
  • The existence of a defined potential enemy created a rather stable funding environment.
  • A strong uniformed leadership, with rank aligned with responsibility, for those officers who dealt with the OSD and Congress.
  • The in-house laboratories played an important role as honest brokers and keepers of the technical safety net.
  • The best leaders, in both industry and government, were those who were rotated through both experiential and educational assignments such that they developed an understanding of the Navy and industry from a corporate sense.

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Data and Analysis for Fleet Battle Experiment
Shelley P. Gallup, Research Associate Professor
Sponsor: Naval Warfare Development Command

Objective:
Provide data capture, analysis planning and execution, and reporting for Fleet Battle Experiments.

Summary:
The Naval Warfare Development Command (NWDC), in cooperation with the numbered Fleets, planned and executed Fleet Battle Experiments (FBEs) through the Maritime Battle Center (MBC). IDSEA/MI developed plans for data collection and analysis design during experiment planning, and then conducted data collection and post-experiment analyses, including:

  • Physical Experiment Planning
  • Analysis Planning
  • Fleet Coordination for Analysis
  • Data Capture Planning
  • Data Capture
  • Analysis
  • Quantitative Measures of Effectiveness
  • Knowledge Management
  • Reporting
  • Workshop Planning and Execution
  • Modeling and Simulation

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Force Protection Limited Objective Experiments
Shelley P. Gallup, Research Associate Professor Gordon E. Schacher, Professor
Sponsor: Office of Naval Research

Objective:
Plan, execute, and report findings from a series of Limited Objective Experiments (LOEs) directly related to the critical operational issue of Force Protection (FP).

Summary:
Force Protection (FP) is an identified Future Navy Capability (FNC), related specifically to the Navy's perceived future access mission. Recent events have underscored the need to understand and implement appropriate capabilities in FP. The LOEs were directed at understanding the means to utilize and enhance organic ship capabilities in a range of conditions, using information technologies. 

The proposed Dynamic Port Assessment (DPA) provides timely and useful information directly to a Navy ship prior to visiting a specific port. Improved situational awareness capabilities combined with the DPA must be coordinated with defense-in-depth, other USN ships in port, innovation in the use of shipboard weapons capabilities, and host nations. This LOE series resulted in the development and identification of processes and technologies that permited a coordinated and dynamic capability in FP.

The FP LOEs addressed the urgent operational requirements for Commander-in-Chief Pacific Fleet; developed a "Community of Interest" and process to respond to emergent operational needs of Fleet Commanders; and designed a  "road ahead" for experimentation to address future FP scenarios.


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Adaptive Architectures for Command and Control
William G. Kemple, Associate Professor
Sponsor: Office of Naval Research

Objective:
To investigate adaptation in joint Command and Control (C2) architecture; develop theories of C2, i.e., "congruence" of task organization; use modeling to identify near-optimal organizational decisions for C2 tasks; test the theories and models in a series of experiments; and support implementation of adaptable C2 architectures.

Summary:
Basic research activities related to adaptive command and control occurred in three phases.  The first two phases (a concept experiment and scenario pilot testing) were preparatory for Experiment 8, which was the culmination event for FY02. 

The focus of Experiment 8 (August 2002) was to design two distinct organizations and create two distinct task/resource requirements that would allow the examination of performance and processes in two conditions: 1) in which the organization structure was congruent with the task requirements, and 2) in which the structure was incongruent. 

The Concept Experiment 8 was conducted in Fall 2001 and focused on the preliminary evaluation of two structures (divisional and functional) with a single scenario that emphasized time-critical tasks.  The pilot testing conducted in Winter 2002 examined two significantly revised scenarios.  The revisions incorporated a series of offensive "mission tasks" that were integrated with the time critical tasks used in the Concept 8 experiment.  The two scenarios were also designed such that the task requirements would be more readily accomplished by one structure (e.g., divisional) and hypothetically be more challenging for the other structure (e.g., functional).

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Advanced Command and Control (AC2) Research Support
William G. Kemple, Associate Professor Susan Hocevar, Assistant Professor
Sponsor: Chief of Naval Operations (N6)

Objective:

The purpose of this research was to advance our understanding of the implications of network centric operations for command and control. This was accomplished through an integrated experiment process that linked  advanced concept seminar-type wargames with simulation-based wargame experiments. OPNAV N6 had identified particular areas of interest to include highlighting risks and opportunities for C2, exploring unintended consequences, identifying guiding principles (i.e., rules, models, metrics), and clarifying and articulating assumptions and relevant uncertainties.

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Center for Defense Technology and Education for the Military Services (CDTEMS)
William G. Kemple, Associate Professor Sue Hutchins, Research Assistant Professor
Sponsor: U.S. Joint Forces Command

Objective:
To conduct investigations and participate in activities that support joint experimentation and enhance joint capabilities.

Summary:
The project team fielded a group of thirteen observer/analysts for Global 2000. The NPS team provided daily and post-game input to the J9 team and administered two surveys. In conjunction with NWDC, a concept for the ETO-to-Actions LOE was developed and conducted. The NPS team served as the lead for training and analysis. The project continued with the follow-on workshop on synchronization and effects assessment.

Planning for the final phases of the Peer-to-Peer (P2P) Wireless LOE was completed. New applications were developed to enable players with COTS PDAs (iPaq) to automatically report their location and to display the locations of all such equipped players on an electronic map.

The NPS team initiated the generation of a web-based 3D representation of the LOE area and events, which could be viewed in collaborative, networked environments. Under other funding, this technology was also applied to support after-action review in Force Protection LOEs and may be a subject of a future LOE for evaluation of web-based 3D visualization for collaborative mission planning. Agent-based applications were also developed to allow monitoring and repair of the wireless network.


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Naval Postgraduate School Effort to Support Global Wargame 2001
William G. Kemple, Associate Professor Sue Hutchins, Research Assistant Professor
Sponsor: Office of Naval Research

Objective:
NPS support for global wargame 2001 consisted of two components. The first component involved direct support to advancing A2C2 research; the second involved the provision of support to the joint force command J9 effort. 
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Performance and Risk Assessment of Future Force Structures - Calibration Experiments
Michael E. Melich, Research Professor Rodney Johnson, Visiting Professor
Sponsor: Defense Advanced Research Project Agency

Objective:

Develop parameterization of basic radar-based air defense systems in coevolution with a missile or aircraft based strike system, and estimate the required computing resources as a function of system complexity and level of detail modeling.

Summary:
Background of the proposed work was the identification by the investigators of four fields that in combination have the potential to lead to better ways to conceptualize, describe, assess, and integrate force projections and to generate alternative development trajectories:

  1. the Living Systems Theory (LST) of James G. Miller;
  2. portfolio risk assessment as applied to military R&D;
  3. Evolutionary Computation; and
  4. Distributed-object modeling.

The focus of the work was to exercise the methods on a technically challenging but circumscribed example of a system development problem: the performance/risk analysis of a conceptual future air defense system in coevolution with a conceptual future air strike system. The work tied in with NPS work on bistatic radar systems using satellite-based illuminators. Tasks included:

  1. select and parameterize performance measures for bistatic radar design;
  2. perform test runs for bistatic problem and measure resource utilization;
  3. perform preliminary LST analysis of the development of an air defense system in coevolution with an air strike system and identify risk measures;
  4. prepare progress report briefing;
  5. estimate resources for applying proposed methods to the air defense system development problem;
  6. conduct a meeting of experts in portfolio analysis, risk assessment, and option pricing; and
  7. prepare the final Phase 1 report

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Performance and Risk Assessment of Future Force Structures - Coevolved Investment Trajectories POM Experiments
Michael E. Melich, Research Professor Rodney Johnson, Visiting Professor
Sponsor: Defense Advanced Research Project Agency

Objective:
This work continued DARPA funded research begun in April 2000 under the same title. Results achieved in coevolving algorithms for playing the "POM" game were expanded to include more realistic investment problems.

Summary:
The TEMPO Military Planning game is a game of resource allocation used in courses by the Defense Resources Management Institute (DRMI) as a vehicle for introducing concepts of modern defense management. Teams of players compete in building force structures by dividing limited budgets, over a succession of budgeting periods, between categories such as "acquisition" and "operation" of "offensive units" and "defensive units." The rules' apparent simplicity is deceptive: they pose challenging and difficult decision problems. Methods of Evolutionary Computation (EC) have been applied in developing programs for playing games ranging in complexity from tic-tac-toe to checkers.

The proposal was to study issues involved in using evolutionary methods to develop computer programs capable of playing the TEMPO game and in extending the results to more realistic and complex problems of resource allocation-i.e., to explore the feasibility of using computational power to discover effective resource-allocation strategies. The following issues were addressed:

  1. scalability;
  2. representation of  "individuals" (candidate game-players);
  3. coevolution (including the ability to generalize from the (symmetric) TEMPO game to non-symmetric situations;
  4. introduction of new budget categories.

This was a collaborative effort with Professor Zbigniew Michalewicz (University of North Carolina at Charlotte; NuTech Solutions, Inc.) and others at NuTech.

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Test of Design of Sparse Optical Array Using Evolutionary Computation
Michael E. Melich, Research Professor Rodney Johnson, Visiting Professor
Sponsor: Naval Research Laboratory

Objective:
To determine the applicability of evolutionary computing techniques to the design of a partially filled optical aperture intended to be used for imaging.

Summary:
"Evolutionary Computation" refers to a family of related approaches to complex computational problems that are finding a wide range of applications in design, optimization, classification, search, and adaptive control. These methods are based on ideas from biology, Darwinian natural selection and survival of the fittest. The context of the proposed work was a larger study of the application of evolutionary and other methods to force structure planning, including the use of evolutionary computation for the conceptual design of weapon system components. In previous work, the investigators had successfully applied evolutionary computation to a problem in phased-array radar antenna design.

This work was a preliminary exploration of the use of evolutionary computation in the design of sparse optical arrays for imaging, e.g. in satellite applications. The work comprised three tasks of which the first was to set up the geometries and representations for the optical aperture, design algorithms, and specify "fitness functions." The "fitness function" is the figure of merit to be optimized by a design. Informally, the criterion for an optical array is that a quantity known as the optical transfer function should provide "good coverage" in the domain of spatial frequencies. In the absence of an accepted explicit analytical definition of "good coverage" it was decided to accommodate the use of several plausible "fitness functions" to permit comparison of the designs resulting from each.

The second and third tasks were to run the algorithm to generate candidate designs and prepare an annotated briefing of the results, and to present results to designated representatives of the sponsor.

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Technology Assessment and Analysis for area Denial
John Osmundson, Associate Professor
Sponsor: Naval Warfare Development Command

Objective:
Analyze technologies that might be available in the 2015 timeframe to be used to deny access of the U.S. Navy to world areas.

Summary:
The project included four phases:

  1. to identify hostile innovative technologies that have the capability to deny the U.S. Navy access to areas of potential conflict,
  2. to analyze and assess anti-access technology and compare with intelligence assessments,
  3. to reconcile Science and Technology plan with anti-access technology and identification of appropriate MOEs and MOPs, and
  4. to clarify results and address open issues.

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A Strategy for Dealing with Islamic Terrorists
Patrick Parker, Project Manager
Sponsor:  Office of the Secretary of Defense

Objective:
The issues of dealing with terrorism in a world where Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) are becoming increasingly accessible pose a profound intellectual challenge.   One approach to this challenge is to form teams of knowledgeable and experienced people working independently to develop strategic approaches to the threat to U.S. national security posed by well-armed and funded militant terrorists.  NPS formed such a team focusing on terrorism originating in or supported by the Islamic world.  Attention was paid to insuring that the analyses and processes developed are applicable to a wide range of terrorist threats.

Summary:
Rapidly increasing access to nuclear weapons (and other WMD) combined with the rise of well-funded and supported Islamic terrorist groups has changed the defense paradigm and calls for a fundamental rethinking of our strategy, much as the advent of nuclear weapons and the rise of the Soviet threat did at an earlier time. 

Today, the falling cost and growing accessibility of things that can do great harm are making it increasingly possible for small groups to inflict great damage.  While terrorism is an age-old phenomenon, until now truly nation-threatening capabilities have required a national effort.  It is difficult to kill a nation; witness the recoveries of Germany, Japan, and Russia after WW II.  While this nation could survive a number of devastating terrorist attacks, even those involving WMD, profound social effects that would change the society and many of its underlying values would probably result.  The meaning of victory or the nature of a successful endgame is unclear.  Indeed, a successful one may not exist and will be difficult to define.

While focusing on terror, this project was mindful of the fact that rapid economic growth may well result in the emergence of nations with the resources to compete effectively with us in more traditional ways.  Emphasis on terrorism should not ignore this, or the possibility that such nations may use covert, deniable support of terrorists to weaken us.

Independent teams working on the formulation of national strategy can assist top management in sharpening issues, directing research into areas that will make a difference in policy, and choosing successful courses of action in the face of uncertainty and imperfect information.

Protection of U.S. interests against terrorist threats is a complex undertaking because of the variety of threats, the interaction between countermeasures and the development of new threats, and the great variety of means used, both violent and non-violent.

The project characterized the enemy in the war on terror and used scenarios to identify issues and formulate strategies for dealing with a variety of possible circumstances. 

The NPS team was composed of Patrick Parker, Project Manager, Chip Franck, Bob Harney, Michael Melich, Hy Rothstein, David Tucker, and Anna Simons.  Wayne Hughes, John Arquilla and others provided review. All have specific knowledge of various aspects of terrorism, and serious scholarly credentials in the fields of physics, economics, political science/international relations, and anthropology.

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Unconventional Weapons of Mass Destruction
Michael E. Melich, Research Professor Robert C. Harney, Senior Lecturer
Sponsor: Office of the Secretary of Defense

Objective:
To develop physically observable indicators and relative priorities of economically and technically feasible, and socially attractive, UWMD systems or operations listed in Robert Harney’s book on UWMD. This work will reflect the competitive interaction of potential UWMD actors and the U.S. and its allies. 

Summary:
For the past six years the Naval Postgraduate School has conducted studies of economically, technically, and operationally feasible threats to the United States for the period 2000-2021, under the sponsorship of the CNO Executive Panel, the Office of Naval Research,  and in collaboration with the CNO Strategic Studies Group. These studies have included iterative consideration of the actions of the competitors. 

The primary focus has been on military threats, but an integral part of the effort has been considerations of competitors with limited resources but potentially very lethal weapons.  Robert Harney, a major participant in these NPS studies, has written a book entitled “Unconventional Weapons of Mass Destruction and Terrorism” (UWMD)[Harney2001].  He distinguishes UWMD as follows:

  • Conventional WMD threats are those agents and modes of attack which have either seen significant past use by terrorist organizations or which are derived from military weapons or which have been frequently identified as serious threats.  In the course of unrelated research and study into conventional WMD and into unconventional warfare, the author identified a number of threats which did not fit any definition of conventional WMD, yet possessed lethality comparable to military weapons and were readily available to terrorists.  With few exceptions these unconventional threats were not being addressed by those groups attempting to curb terrorist use of WMD.
  • The book tabulates specific examples of 21 classes of UWMD and characterizes 15 potential users of these weapons in trying to establish the probability that they could pose a threat to the U.S.A. and her allies.  In light of the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York and the Pentagon in Washington, D.C., there has been a heightened need to understand significant threats to the existence of the U.S.A.  This study expanded upon Professor Harney’s work with an eye to clarifying how these threats may manifest themselves, particularly in the face of the changing attention that the U.S.A. pays to implementing countermeasures.  Such clarification would permit improved targeting of intelligence collection efforts and identify countermeasures.
  • How close to weaponization is it?
  • What would it take to make the weapon fully operational … in terms of developing both technology and operational concepts?
  • What are the resource allocation implications of pursuing the option?
  • Who are the potential users and customers?  How well does the option fit their objectives, culture and modes of operation?
  • What are the observable events associated with pursuing the option?
  • What exploitable vulnerabilities can be expected in (a) the development process and (b) the fully operational weapon?

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Directional Transducer Measurement Facility
Joseph Rice, Engineering Acoustic Chair Department of Physics
Sponsor: SPAWAR-San Diego

Objective:
Implement a high fidelity measurement capability in conjunction with the anechoic tanks in Spanagel Hall. Purpose of the facility is testing and calibrating experimental telesonar transducers operating in the 8-100 kHz band. This work is done in conjunction with the Navy SBIR Topic N99-011 performers, ONR 321SS project personnel.  This work is performed as an activity of the NPS Undersea Warfare Center and involved thesis research.

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NPS Mine and Undersea Warfare Program
C. Scandrett, Professor Department of Applied Mathematics
Sponsor: NAVSEA

Objective:
The Chair of Mine Warfare was established in 1996 with a MOU between the Director, Expeditionary Warfare on the CNO’s staff, the Program Executive Office for Mine Warfare, and the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS).

The Chair program is intended to enhance the academic and research content in several curricula with mine warfare related material and to establish NPS as a major center for instruction, research, and analysis in mine warfare subjects. To that end, the Chair serves on the Undersea Warfare Academic Committee and as the present Director, NPS Undersea Warfare Research Center.

The position operates on a continuing basis to support mine warfare acquisition and life cycle management.

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Anti-Terrorism Information System
Gordon Schacher, Professor
Sponsor: Naval Criminal Investigative Service

Objective:
To complete the design and initial testing of the TATIPS information network for utilization by NCIS and Multi-Threat Alert Center (MTAC), to develop requirement for AT/FP Navy information systems designers, and report on the ASOCC test.

Summary:
NPS and NCIS worked together to design a web-based Anti-terrorism information system. The system is to be used by the Multi-Threat Alert Center, a new NCIS organization.  The work of this project completed the design and performed initial testing of the network, developed requirements and reported in the testing. 

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Force Protection Experimentation, Non-Lethal Weapons Testing
Gordon Schacher, Professor
Sponsor: N757/ Non-Lethal Weapons, OPNAV/N757

Objective:
The Wayne E. Meyer Institute of Systems Engineering (MISE) conducted a series of Force Protection Limited Objective Experiments.  This work added the use of Non-Lethal Weapons for the application of Continuum of Force to these experiments.

Summary:
The MISE at the Naval Postgraduate School and Third Fleet conducted a series of Force Protection (FP) Limited Objective Experiments (LOEs) for CINCPACFLT.

Rigorous testing of Non-Lethal Weapons (NLW) for protection of facilities and ships was added to the previous FP LOEs.  This research focused on development of processes for the use of NLW and systems requirements, not on test and evaluation of specific systems. 

The experimentation was done using operating forces, within an FP scenario set up specifically for this program.  A scenario contains three parts:

  • pre-planning, where a basic plan is set up prior to an incident such as a port visit,
  • dynamic planning, where situation changes are followed prior to an terrorist incident, and
  • response, where an attack occurs that requires assessing multi-source tactical information and application of a Continuum of Force.


This project deals with the response phase of the experiments. These experiments have two main purposes:

  1. Develop and test FP information systems and processes.  Their purpose is to enable dynamic planning that involves the strategic down through the tactical level.
  2. Act as a test-bed for FP systems.  This test-bed will provide the physical structure for testing during an operation, the scenario that supports the test goals, and insure that both support systems testing goals.

Continuum of Force (COF)

This work focused on NLW within the context of COF application.  To apply the COF concept, the following tasks were done synergistically:

  • evaluated the details of the current threat,
  • developed exclusion zones,
  • provided sensing within those zones,
  • had NLWs available to probe intent within the zones (and other means),
  • had NLWs available to enforce the zones.

Planning and executing this process must be done as a whole, not as independent parts.  An LOE will focus on the information, processes, and systems needed to execute each of these tasks.  

The end result of the project was requirements, CONOPS, and TTPs for COF. The following work was done in partnership with N757.

  1. Developed the specific scenarios for NLW testing for each LOE.
  2. Determined the specific NLW system to be used.
  3. Determined the sensors that will be used in conjunction with the NLW.
  4. Extended data collection to cover NLW play.
  5. Analyzed the NLW portion of the LOEs to determine system requirements and TTPs.
  6. Provided a section in LOE final reports on NLW requirements and process.
  7. Provided a person to be a direct liaison with the NLW program office for planning and support.

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NFN Fleet Implementation, Systems and Process Analysis
Gordon Schacher, Professor William G. Kemple, Associate Professor
Sponsor:  PMA 454

Objective:
The Wayne E. Meyer Institute of Systems Engineering (MISE) planned, managed, and participated in a series of studies directly related to the modeling, analysis, and fielding of  the NFN system.  In the first year of the program, FY02, MISE coordinated with the program office and Third Fleet to develop a set of project objectives and design the study plan to meet those objectives. 

A broad range of objectives was addressed, from system interoperability and performance to TTPs and training.  Project results are applicable to NFN inclusion in all Fleets.

Summary:
The Naval Fires Network (NFN) is a prototype system that is being tested by 3rd Fleet for incorporation as the principal delivery means for fire control solutions.  Its implementation has been supported by Limited Objective Experiments (LOEs) and Fleet Battle Experiment-India (FBE-I) results.  Those experiments provided preliminary information for this project.  Relevant lessons learned have been generated and Time Critical Strike CONOPS examined through this integration of TES-N with the Navy’s current exploitation, targeting, and communications systems. 

This project will consist of a number of information capture venues, workshops, games, simulation, and field experiments.  These will be designed to meet a set of NFN program office and Fleet needs.  A broad range of objectives will be addressed, from system performance and interoperability to TTPs and training.

The MISE provided data capture and analysis for the FBE series.  Information that was obtained during those experiments provided some preliminary information for this project
FN is currently being installed on Third Fleet ships.  Thus, the proposed investigations will occur concurrent with demonstration, rapid fielding, and implementation of the system on carriers, flagships, combatants, and submarines.

This project gathered information and data through experiments.  Experiment was meant in the broad sense, including workshops, games, simulation, system level laboratory experiments, and operational field experiments.  Central foci of the experiments were:

  • Operational Requirements
  • Information Content Requirements
  • Information Distribution Requirements
  • Command Relationships and Decision Processes
  • Human Situation Awareness
  • Decision Support Systems

Considerable emphasis was placed on understanding and quantifying benefits that NFN brings to the Navy Fires (TCT/TST) process.  This was done by comparing current system and process capabilities with those provided by NFN.  Included were any new processes that would be put in place in order to implement NFN.

Implementing NFN installation and use on ships required a wide range of actions.  The following is a list of considerations, in broad categories, which must be addressed.  Those covered in this project are indicated.

  • Hardware Installation
  • System Architecture Design
  • Process Architecture Design (Covered)
  • Configuration Requirements   (Covered)
  • System Utilization Processes (Covered)
  • Hardware System T&E
  • Process T&E (Covered)
  • Human Factors (Covered)
  • Training Requirements (Covered)
  • CONOPS and TTPs (Covered)

The NFN implementation program has a broad range.  The main activities for this initiation year of this multi-year project were to determine which of those needs were addressed and to develop a comprehensive project plan. 

Task 1.
  Identify NFN project stakeholders (within OPNAV, SYSCOMS, Fleets).  Determine from those stakeholders their objectives for this project. 

Task 2.
  Develop a preliminary NFN study plan to meet stakeholder objectives.  This plan is to include needed experimentation events, participating organizations, and required outputs. 

Task 3.
  Work with PMA 454 to finalize the study plan. 

Task 4.
  Identify those areas within the study plan which are appropriate for IDSEA participation or management.  Prepare an FY03 proposal to support those activities and forward to PMA 454. 
A secondary FY02 task is to examine FBE and LOE experimentation to date and determine what available information can be used for this project. 

Task 5.
  Examine experimentation information previously produced by IDSEA, and information from FBE-J and MC02, to determine if results are present which can be used for this project.  Archive this information to be used for this project.  Reporting on such results is not expected to occur until FY03.

DoD Key Technology Areas:
Experimentation, ISR, Time Sensitive Fires, Operations Research, Modeling and Simulation, Command and Control

Keywords:
Naval Fires Network (NFN), TES-N, AFATADS, JSIPS, PTW+, EPPIC, Network Centric Warfare, Knowledge Management, Systems Engineering, Systems Acquisition


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