Seminar - 04132018

Speaker photoReducing the Use of Expeditionary Energy in the United States Marine Corps:  
A Behavioral Change Approach

April 13, 2018
ME Lecture Hall

Ms. Anita Salem

Research Associate, Graduate School of Business and Public Policy, Naval Postgraduate School



The authors have created a body of research that investigates how the United States Marine Corps can more efficiently use fuel and increase its operational effectiveness. In response to the increasing demand for energy that threatens to limit the range and scope of expeditionary operations, the Marine Corps spearheaded a campaign to more effectively use operational energy and instill a mindset of energy efficiency across the Marine Corps. The authors’ research took a systems and behavioral approach to the problem. We observed and analyzed current Marine Corps behaviors, identified best practices in vehicle metering and monitoring, and developed a behavioral change model that is suitable for managing the change in the Marine Corps. The analysis of current behaviors resulted in a framework for action that addressed situational and individual factors and recommended five arenas of action—policy, procedures, education, technology, and culture. The research on industry practices in metering and monitoring showed that effective fuel use is typically part of a whole systems approach to fleet management that accounts for benefits across a vehicle’s lifecycle and is centered around vehicle maintenance. The final round of research integrated the earlier findings and modern change management theories into a comprehensive “portfolio” model for change that offers a customized approach for the Marine Corps and presents clear roles and behaviors for managing change.


Anita Salem is a design researcher with extensive experience in human-centered design. She works in the public and private sectors helping to integrate human needs into the development of new processes, policies, and technologies. Anita received her Master degree from the University of Washington in Human-Centered Design and Engineering in 1997.  Since then, she has taught user experience design, information design, and design research methods at the University of Washington and the Naval Postgraduate School. She currently teaches Design Thinking for the Systems Engineering Department at NPS and facilitates strategic planning and communication workshops for the Center for Executive Education. Anita is also a certified ProsSci change practitioner and incorporates change management into her research and design activities.

As a design researcher, Anita works across a variety of problem spaces. Before coming to the Naval Postgraduate School, she conducted stakeholder research for established companies such as the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Getty Images, Cisco Systems, AT&T, and the State of Washington. She also helped technology start-ups establish their product and customer strategies using human-centered design processes. Since joining NPS in 2007, Anita has worked with United States Navy, Marine Corps, and other Department of Defense leaders in integrating human systems research into the design of their business strategies. She has helped develop stakeholder engagement plans in support of organizational change, researched the human factors impacting policies and processes, and facilitated workshops in strategic communication, strategic planning, change management, and design thinking.

Anita earned her Bachelor of Arts degree in Psychology, graduating Magna Cum Laude from the University of California, Santa Barbara. She earned her Master of Science degree in Human-Centered Design and Technical Communication from the University of Washington.


Dr. Daniel A. Nussbaum
Naval Postgraduate School 
Principal, Energy Academic Group
Monterey CA 93943
Phone: 831-656-2387
Mobile: 831-324-3228

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