Flipped Classrooms

The goal of this resource page is to help you understand the benefits of the flipped classroom approach, identify situations where it is most effective, and provide implementation guidelines.

What is a Flipped Classroom?

 

A flipped class (described as “pedagogy first”) inverts the typical sequence of content acquisition and application so that:

 

  • Students gain necessary knowledge before class.
  • Instructors guide students to actively and interactively clarify and apply that knowledge in class, creating deeper thinking and higher levels of application.

Adapted from https://facultyinnovate.utexas.edu/flipped-classroom

 

Why Flip?

 

Students learn more deeply.

Students engage more deeply with the material and have more opportunity for interaction with peers and the instructor. Feedback is in real time, allowing for response and clarification.

 

“By providing an opportunity for students to use their new factual knowledge while they have access to immediate feedback from peers and the instructor, the flipped classroom helps students learn to correct misconceptions and organize their new knowledge such that it is more accessible for future use”(Brame, 2013).

https://cft.vanderbilt.edu/guides-sub-pages/flipping-the-classroom 

 

Students are more active participants in learning.

Students shift from passive recipient to active constructor of knowledge, giving them opportunities to practice using the intellectual tools of the discipline.

"A flipped classroom approach facilitates cognitive apprenticeship, which is a key step in making the transition from accomplished student to skilled practitioner. It “assumes that implicit processes involved in complex skill development may be overlooked by instructors and asserts that learning experiences should be designed to unmask these processes so that students can observe and apply them with instructor oversight” (Persky et al., 2017).

Students learn more deeply.

Students engage more deeply with the material and have more opportunity for interaction with peers and the instructor. Feedback is in real time, allowing for response and clarification.

 

“By providing an opportunity for students to use their new factual knowledge while they have access to immediate feedback from peers and the instructor, the flipped classroom helps students learn to correct misconceptions and organize their new knowledge such that it is more accessible for future use”(Brame, 2013).

https://cft.vanderbilt.edu/guides-sub-pages/flipping-the-classroom 

 

Students are more active participants in learning.

Students shift from passive recipient to active constructor of knowledge, giving them opportunities to practice using the intellectual tools of the discipline.

 

"A flipped classroom approach facilitates cognitive apprenticeship, which is a key step in making the transition from accomplished student to skilled practitioner. It “assumes that implicit processes involved in complex skill development may be overlooked by instructors and asserts that learning experiences should be designed to unmask these processes so that students can observe and apply them with instructor oversight” (Persky et al., 2017).

 

Interaction increases and students learn from one another.

Students work together applying course concepts with guidance from the instructor, creating a learning community. The interactivity involved in application to complex problems more closely reflects the professional situations students encounter, and enhances transfer to the real-world situations.

 

Instructors and students get more feedback.

In-class activities and discussions reveal gaps in understanding to both students and the instructor, allowing coaching/correction in the moment.

 

“When teachers seek, or at least are open to, feedback from students as to what students know, what they understand, where they make errors...then teaching and learning can be synchronized and powerful” (Hattie, 2009, p.173). A flipped classroom is the ideal setting for real-time feedback between all parties.

 

 

Elements of Flipped Learning

 

  • First exposure to material occurs prior to class session
    • Textbook, video, podcast.
  • Incentive for students to prepare
    • Provide discussion questions before class with clear expectations that students review and come prepared to participate.
  • Mechanism to assess student comprehension.
    • In-class Q and A.
    • Small group discussion for peer-to-peer learning; bring conclusions forward to larger class with instructor input.
  • Class time devoted to higher-level cognitive activities.

 

Preparation

1. Start with a topic for which you:

  • Already have some class-based discussion/activity content developed (project-based learning activities, case studies, role-play) and/or
  • Feel that a more in-depth treatment would be helpful, or that you never quite get to the level of engagement you would like and
  • Have a comfortable timeframe for development.

2. Review your material. You may have already adapted some of your course material as a result of converting to a distance-learning environment.

  • Will the pre-study material need explanation or a focus? Consider a brief narrated PPT, podcast, or video to provide direction and context for print resources. If you will be using PPT slides that you normally use in lectures, give yourself time to convert them for independent viewing; often the slides you teach from may need revision/explanation if students will be viewing them on their own.
  • Develop clear instructions to prepare students for in-class activities. Assign discussion questions.
  • Do the students need motivation? Consider a brief focus activity or quiz.
  • Consider workload for students.

3. Review your existing in-class activities and modify to deepen engagement. At the start of class, plan to conduct a brief review/Q&A and then proceed with activities.

4. Revise and align objectives, if necessary.

5. Remember, you can proceed incrementally, flipping a lesson and/or module at a time. Convert only the segments that will increase value to the class experience.


An experienced professor’s lessons learned about adopting the flipped classroom approach: