Defense Analysis Department Chair,  Dr. Carter Malkasian

Dr. Carter Malkasian, Defense Analysis, Naval Postgraduate School, Monterey, CA

Professor Carter Malkasian was the senior civilian advisor to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, General Joseph Dunford from 2015 to 2019. He has extensive experience in conflict zones, especially Afghanistan and Iraq, and has published several books. He in Garmser district in southern Helmand province, Afghanistan for two years (2009 to 2011), as the State political officer working alongside five consecutive infantry battalions, Afghan tribal leaders, and Afghan local leaders in villages on the Helmand River. Before that, he was a civilian advisor to the I Marine Expeditionary Force in al-Anbar province for one year in 2004–2005 and six months in 2006. He also worked Kunar in 2007 and Honduras in 2012; and was General Dunford’s senior advisor in Afghanistan from March 2013 to August 2014. His newest book is the award-winning The American War in Afghanistan: A History. The New York Times rated it as one of the top 100 books of 2021. His 2013 book, War Comes to Garmser: Thirty Years of Conflict on the Afghan Frontier (Oxford University Press), won the 2014 silver medal for the Council on Foreign Relations’ Arthur Ross Book Award. Other books include Illusions of Victory: The Anbar Awakening and the Islamic State, A History of Modern Wars of Attrition, and The Korean War, 1950-1953. He received his undergraduate degree from the University of California, Berkeley and completed his doctorate in history at Oxford University. He speaks Pashto.


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John Arquilla
Distinguished Professor, Emeritus
Expertise: Military organizations and technological change, conflict in the information age, and strategic design
Ph.D., in Political Science, Stanford University,
John Arquilla earned his doctorate at Stanford University. He is one of the co-founders of the Defense Analysis program at NPS, and was department head from 2011-2019. Dr. Arquilla is best known for having coined the term "cyberwar," and for introducing and initially developing the concept of swarm tactics. PUBLICATIONS Principal contributions include: In Athena's Camp (1997) Networks and Netwars (2001) The Reagan Imprint (2006) Worst Enemy (2008) Insurgents, Raiders, and Bandits (2011) Afghan Endgames (2012) Why the Axis Lost (2020) Bitskrieg (2021) WIKIPEDIA PAGE 

Sally Baho
Faculty Associate - Research
Expertise: WPS; Inter- and Cross-Cultural Communication; Interagency Collaboration; Social Psychology
M.A., Food Studies, University of the Pacific, 2020
Mrs. Sally Baho joined the Naval Postgraduate School in 2011 as a Research Assistant in the Graduate School of Business and Public Policy, now the Department of Defense Management. In 2019 she moved to the Defense Analysis department in the Graduate School of Operations and Information Science to join the Global ECCO team. She has served as a copyeditor for the Combatting Terrorism eXchange (CTX) Journal, a quarterly journal which is part of Global ECCO. She is also a game-facilitator for the serious games that the global ECCO team manages and delivers in support of the Regional Defense Fellowship Program. She also manages the SOUTHCOM portfolio of courses for the CORE Lab. She has supported research on strategic communication and organizational behavior per Navy-sponsored research agendas each year. She has played an active role on projects ranging from Social Media usage among young sailors in the Navy to Middle Manager Support for Strategic Change. In addition to her support of academic research, she has worked with the former Partnership for Peace office in developing curricula for the Women, Peace, and Security workshop on the integration of women in Peacekeeping Operations with the United Nations. The workshop has been executed—first, with her assistance and now her management—over a dozen times in seven Latin American nations, with future events planned. Mrs. Baho received a Bachelor of Science degree in Biochemistry and Cell Biology from the University of California, San Diego and a Master of Arts in in Food Studies from the University of the Pacific in 2020. She is fluent in Levantine Arabic and Spanish. PUBLICATIONS Gibbons, D. E. & Baho, S. M. (2016). Women as UN Peacekeepers and Peacemakers. Naval Postgraduate School: Monterey, CA. Thomas, G.F., Neff, J., Stephens, K., & Baho, S. (2017). Gaining Middle Managers’ Support for Strategic Change: Literature Review. Naval Postgraduate School: Monterey, CA. Gibbons, D.E. &. Baho, S.M. (2020). Building Skills to Integrate, Protect, and Empower Women During Peacekeeping. Journal of Business Diversity, 20:4, 113-125. Thomas, G.F.; Gibbons, D.E.; & Baho, S.M. (2022) Prevention is Better than the Cure: The Development of Gray-Zone Situational Judgment Tests to Deter Sex and Gender Discrimination, Military Behavioral Health, 10:4, 368-378, DOI: 10.1080/21635781.2022.2026848 LANGUAGES  Native: English and Levantine Arabic (speaking); fluent in Spanish 

Kathleen Bailey
Faculty Associate-Research
Expertise: Public Policy, Environmental Policy, Public Administration, National Security Affairs
Ph.D., Public Affairs, 2023
Ms. Bailey joined the Naval Postgraduate School in 2004 as a Research Associate in the Defense Resources Management Institute (DRMI), transitioning to a Faculty Associate-Research position in 2014. In 2022 she moved into her current role supporting the Global ECCO team in the Defense Analysis Department. She has been involved predominantly with the Regional Defense Fellowship Program (RDFP) evaluation team but has also been assisting with the Combatting Terrorism eXchange (CTX) Journal and ECCO game facilitation. Beyond her RDFP program evaluation work, she has recently supported research to measure Navy personnel's perceptions of messages related to help-seeking for drugs, alcohol misuse, and mental health issues and the framing effects of stigma on the willingness to seek help for addiction or mental health issues; research related to Women, Peace, and Security (WPS); and improving the Navy performance management system, specifically fitness reports (FITREPs) and evaluations (EVALs). Ms. Bailey received a BA in English and Environmental Studies from Alfred University in 2001, an MA in International Environmental Policy from the Monterey Institute of International Studies (now the Middlebury Institute of International Studies at Monterey) in 2005, and an MA in Security Studies: Western Hemisphere from the Naval Postgraduate School in 2011. She is currently a Ph.D. candidate in Public Affairs at the University of Colorado Denver. Her dissertation examines policy conflicts surrounding hydraulic fracturing in Colorado. In addition to her Global ECCO work and doctoral studies, Ms. Bailey is currently serving as the Mayor Pro Tem for the Town of Mountain View, Colorado. PUBLICATIONS Peer-Reviewed Publications: Bailey, Kathleen S., Hungtao Yi, Tanya Heikkila, and Christopher M. Weible. 2023. “Policy Conflicts in Shale Development in China and the United States.” Review of Policy Research, 00, 1–17. Bailey, Kathleen, and Robert M. McNab. 2008. “The Washington Consensus and Latin America’s Left Turn: Has U.S. National Security Suffered as a Result?” Security and Defense Studies Review 8 (1): 1-21. McNab, Robert M., and Kathleen Bailey. 2007. “Latin America and the Debate Over Environmental Protection and National Security.” Defense Institute of Security Assistance Management (DISAM) Journal 29 (4): 18-34. Non-Referred Technical Report: Bailey, Kathleen. 2014. “Working in the Same Space.” The Collaborative & Adaptive Security Initiative, Naval Postgraduate School. Report on the Working in the Same Space Workshop, United States Southern Command, Miami, Florida, September 10-12, 2013.

Leo Blanken
Associate Professor
Expertise: Strategic Competition, Innovation, Defense Economics
Ph.D., Political Science, University of California, Davis, 2006
Leo Blanken is the academic lead for the “Applied Design for Innovation” masters curriculum. He has authored work on strategic competition among great powers, innovation, defense economics, and assessment. Leo collects and DJs rare soul and funk records from the 1960s. PUBLICATIONS Author of Rational Empires: Institutional Incentives and Imperial Expansion (University of Chicago Press) Co-editor of Assessing War: The Challenge of Measuring Success and Failure (Georgetown University Press) Leo Blanken and Cecilia Panella. 2023. “Why Fashion Matters in an Era of Strategic Competition,”Inkstick (18 January 2023)  Leo Blanken, Jason Lepore, and Cecilia Panella. 2022. “From the Lighthouse to the Christmas Tree: Enabling Distributed Innovation in the US Military,” Modern War Institute (27 July 2022)   Leo Blanken and Ben Cohen. 2022. “Reviving the Victory Garden: The Military Benefits of Sustainable Farming,” War on the Rocks (20 January 2022)  PERSONAL WEBSITE 

Doug Borer
Associate Professor
Expertise: Comparative Strategy. Asymmetric Warfare. Irregular Warfare. Legitimacy in War
Ph.D., Political Science, Boston University, 1993
Douglas A. Borer is an Associate Professor in the Department of Defense Analysis at the Naval Postgraduate School and Executive Director of the Global ECCO Project.. A native son on Montana, Dr. Borer received his BA in Psychology from Ripon College in 1985, an MA in Political Science from the University of Montana in 1988, and his PhD in Political Science from Boston University in 1993. He has worked at a variety of academic postings, including the University of the South Pacific in Suva Fiji, the University of Western Australia in Perth, Virginia Tech in Blacksburg, the Universitii Kebangsaan in Kuala Lumpur Malaysia, and the US Army War College in Carlisle Barracks Pennsylvania. His scholarship focuses on the politics of legitimacy in times of war, with regional focus on the Asia-Pacific. In 2007 he helped establish the Common Operational Research Environment (CORE) Lab at NPS. PUBLICATIONS Borer is the author of Superpowers Defeated: Vietnam and Afghanistan Compared (Frank Cass, 1999). He is co-editor with John Arquilla of Information Strategy and War: A Guide to Theory and Practice (Routledge, 2007); He is co-editor with Mark Berger of two books; The Long War-Insurgency, Counterinsurgency and Collapsing States (Routledge, 2008); and The Rise of East Asia: Critical Vision of the Pacific Century (Routledge, 1997). Borer has also authored or co-authored over seventy book chapters, professional articles, book reviews, and editorials.

Nancy Budden
Director, Special Operations Technology, Retired
Expertise: Advanced Technology, Intelligence, NPS Leadership
Nancy Ann Budden serves as a volunteer and advisor to faculty and students, at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey CA.  She retired from full-time government service in 2020, when she was sworn-in as a ‘Special Governmental Employee’ (SGE) to the Office of the SECDEF and Under SECDEF Research and Engineering, to serve as a Defense Technology Senior Advisor, to provide advice to the Secretary of Defense for Research and Engineering, and Deputy Chief of Staff in the Office of the SECDEF. Her technical advice encompasses the perspectives and historic information for Defense technologies, along with processes and successes for rapid technology transition, rapid fielding, prototyping, and optimizing advanced capabilities for war fighting communities, including Special Operations.  She was administered the oath of office on 8 Sept 2020.    2006 to present:  Special Governmental Employee (SGE) member of the NASA Headquarters Advisory Council (NAC)  Human Exploration and Operations Committee (HEOC).  HEOC provides the NASA Administrator and Associate Administrators advice on future missions to the Moon and Mars. She holds the appointment of Visiting Scientist with NASA’s Lunar and Planetary Institute in Houston Texas.   PUBLICATIONS 2021 in prep, Budden N.A., and Votel, GEN Joseph L, Multi-Cultural Technology Teaming. To be submitted to Joint Force Quarterly. 2018, Eppler, Dean and N.A. Budden, Lighting Constraints to Lunar Surface Operations, in “Survive + Operate in the Lunar Night Workshop”,; held in conjunction with the Fall 2018 Lunar Exploration Advisory Group meeting at USRA Headquarters, Columbia, MD on 13 Nov 2018, LPI Contribution #2106, Abstract 7008. 2007, Jolliff B. L and N. A. Budden et al, Science in NASA’s exploration strategy, Eos Trans. AGU, 88(29), 294. 2003, Budden, Nancy Ann, “Recommendations for Mars Surface Science: Geology, Biology and Paleontology”, in Workshop on Analog Sites and Facilities for Human Exploration of the Moon and Mars, Golden Colorado. 2000, Budden, Nancy Ann, “Outlook for the Future: UNOCAL Community Partnerships and Projects in Bangladesh.” 1999, Budden, Nancy Ann, “Initial Report of the Mars Field Geology, Biology and Paleontology Workshop: November 1998, Space Center Houston,” LPI Contribution #968, Lunar and Planetary Institute. 1998, Budden Nancy Ann, and Duke, Michael B., HEDS-UP Mars Exploration Forum,” LPI Contribution Number 955, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, 241 pp. 1997, Budden, Nancy Ann, 1997, “Virtual Presence: One Step Beyond Reality,” Ad Astra, National Space Society, vol. 9, number 1, pp. 30-35. 1995, Budden, Nancy Ann, “Tools of Tomorrow—Catalog of Lunar and Mars Science Payloads,” Beyond Low Earth Orbit, vol 2, number 3, pp. 4-5. 1995, Budden, Nancy Ann, “Virtual Presence: Robot turns Planetary Geologist as Scientists and Engineers Team Up.” Space News Round-up, NASA/JSC, v. 34 No. 3, January 20. 1994, Budden, Nancy Ann, Catalog of Lunar and Mars Science Payloads, NASA Johnson Space Center, NASA Reference Publication 1345, August. 1993, Duke, Michael B. and Budden, Nancy Ann, NASA Johnson Space Center, Mars Exploration Workshop II, NASA/Ames Research Center, NASA Conference Publication 3243, May. 1993, Budden, Nancy Ann, and Spudis, Paul, D., Evaluating Science Return in Space Exploration Initiative Architectures, NASA Technical Paper 3339, March. 1993, Budden, Nancy Ann and Spudis, Paul, D., Space Exploration Initiative Science, Measuring the Return, Aerospace America, March. 1992, Duke, Michael B. and Budden, Nancy Ann, NASA Johnson Space Center, Results, Proceedings and Analysis of the Mars Exploration Workshop, JSC-26001, August. 1991, Budden, N. A., Science Rationale for the Global Access of the Moon, AAS/AIAA Astrodynamics Conference Proceedings. 1990, Budden, N. A., Lunar/Mars Exploration Program Office White Paper Architectures: Science Development and Payloads, NASA internal document. 1990, Budden, N. A., "Human Exploration of the Moon, the Science Program for the NASA 90-Day Study", NASA/Goddard Workshop on Astrophysics from the Moon, Annapolis Maryland, 1989, Budden, N. A., "Science for the Lunar Case Study and Mars Case Study", NASA/Lunar Mars Exploration Program Office 1988 Annual Report. 1988, Brewster, N. A., "National Science Foundation's Global Geoscience Program, in Earthquest", Volume 1, No. 3. 1987, Brewster, N. A., editor, special dedicated issue of Discovery, "Understanding Planet Earth", National Science Foundation Publication, Volume 2., No. 4. 1982, Brewster, N. A., The Organizational Infrastructure of Union Oil Company, MBA Masters Thesis, California Lutheran College, Graduate School of Business. 1982, Brewster, N. A., "The determination of biogenic opal in high latitude deep sea sediments," Chapter 18, in Ijima et al (eds.), Siliceous Deposits in the Pacific Region, Developments in Sedimentology, v. 36. 1980, Brewster, N. A., Cenozoic biogenic silica sedimentation in the Antarctic Ocean, Geologic Society of America Bulletin, Part I, v. 91, pp. 337-347. 1977, Brewster, N. A., Biogenic silica sedimentation and surface productivity in the Cenozoic Antarctic Ocean, abstract, Geologic Society of America National Meeting, Seattle, WA, v. 9 no. 7, pp. 910-911. 1977, Brewster, N. A., Biogenic opal accumulation in the Southern Ocean during the Cenozoic, abstract, EOS, American Geophysical Union Transactions, v. 58, no. 6. 1977, Brewster, N. A., Cenozoic Biogenic Silica Sedimentation in the Antarctic Ocean, Based on Two Deep Sea Drilling Project Cores. Oregon State University, Graduate School of Oceanography, (Dr. Tj. van Andel, committee chairman), 99 pp.

Robert Burks
Associate Professor
Expertise: Wargaming, Information Operations Modeling, Combat Modeling, Agent-based Modeling, Joint Campaign Analysis, Megacities
Ph.D., Operations Research, Air Force Institute of Technology, 2006
Colonel (R) Robert E. Burks, Jr., Ph.D., is an Associate Professor in the Defense Analysis Department of the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) and the Director of the Naval Warfare Studies Institute (NWSI) Wargaming Center. He holds a Ph.D. in Operations Research from the Air Force Institute of Technology, a M.S. in Operations Research from the Florida Institute of Technology, and a B.S. in Aerospace Engineering from the United States Military Academy. He is a retired logistics Army Colonel with over thirty years of extensive operational experience in leadership, advanced analytics, decision modeling, and logistics operations, and he has served as an Army Operations Research analyst in multiple command organizations. He has led multiple analytical study teams responsible for Army Transformation (organizational change) issues. His work includes applying analytical methods to develop solutions for complex problems in support of the Combined Arms Support Command, the Army’s sustainment think tank and premier sustainment learning institution. He has served as the technical expert on studies involving deployment, equipping, manning, training, and logistics operations of military forces in multiple theaters of operation and the NATO Technical Team of SAS-130 on Course of Action Analysis for the 21st Century. His research interests include Irregular Warfare and Stability Operations modeling, Information Operations modeling, Wargaming, Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation, and Joint Campaign analysis. His recent significant awards include the NPS Military Leadership Award, the NPS Joint Service Warfare Award, the Military Operations Research Journal Award for developing analytical methods for solving the Theater Distribution Problem, and the Omar Bradley Fellowship for the Study of Mathematical Sciences. PUBLICATIONS Books: 1. Modeling Change and Uncertainty: Machine Learning and Other Techniques. New York, NY: Chapman and Hall/CRC, (with Bill Fox), 2022. 2. Applied Advanced Mathematical Modeling with Technology. Boca Raton, FL: Taylor & Francis Group, (with Bill Fox), 2021. 3. The Craft of Wargaming: A Detailed Planning Guide for Defense Planners and Analysts. Annapolis, MD: Naval institute Press (with Jeff Appleget and Fred Cameron), 2020. 4. Applications of Operations Research and Management Science for Military Decision Making. Switzerland: Springer (with Bill Fox), 2019. 5. Understanding Human-built Operational Environment. Monterey, CA: Department of Defense Analysis, Naval Postgraduate School, (with Leo Blanken and Iver Johansen), 2017. Chapters in Books: 1. Appleget, J., Burks, R., “Wargaming: Sponsor Education,” in Forging Wargamers: A Framework for Wargaming Education, edited by Sebastian Bae, Marine Corps University Press, 2022. 173-192. 2. Burks, R., Sturdivant, R., “The Goodgrant Challenge,” Mathematical Modeling for the MCM/ICM Contests Volume 4. Ed. Jie Wang. Higher Education Press, 2020. 16 – 57. 3. Fox, B., Burks, R., “Send in the Drones: Developing an Aerial disaster Relief Response System,” Mathematical Modeling for the MCM/ICM Contests Volume 4. Ed. Jie Wang. Beijing: Higher Education Press, 2020. 58 – 96. 4. Sturdivant, R., Burks, R., “The Impact of Self-Driving Cars on Traffic Flow,” Mathematical Modeling for the MCM/ICM Contests Volume 3. Ed. Jie Wang. Higher Education Press, 2018. 61 – 98. Referred Journal Articles: 1. Shaw, A., Mueller, C., Biolzi, F., Villani, N., O’Brien, F., Burks, R., “Understanding Noise Exposure During Cast Removal: The Effect of Cast Saw Type and Casting Material,” Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, 104(17): 1573-1578, 2022. 2. Moreland, C., Shaw, K., Burks, R., Baird, M., Hattaway, J., Parada, S., Waterman, B., “Primary medial patellofemoral ligament reconstruction in military servicemembers: Can we reliably restore preinjury function and stability?,” Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine, 9(6), 2022. 3. Burks, R., Erickson, K., “Judges’ Commentary: Sharing Water and Hydroeltric Power,” The Journal of Undergraduate Mathematics and Its Applications, 43(4): 425-432, 2022. 4. Appleget, J., Kline, J., Burks, R., “Revamping Wargaming Education for the US Department of Defense,” Center for International Maritime Security, 2020. 5. Shaw, A., Mottern, E., Parada, S., Burks, R., Dumont, G., Waterman, B., Nho, S., “Low Rate of Return to Impact Activity Following Core Decompression for Femoral Head AVN in Military Servicemembers,” Military Medicine, 184(1-2): 243-248, 2019. 6. Fox, W., Burks, R., “Judges’ Commentary: How Many Languages?,” The Journal of Undergraduate Mathematics and Its Applications, 39(3), 313-320, 2018. 7. Burks, R., Sturdivant, R., “The Goodgrant Challenge,” Mathematical Modeling for the MCM/ICM Contests Volume 4. Ed. Jie Wang. Higher Education Press, 58 – 95. Print, 2018. 8. Shaw, A., Edward, P., Stephen, Burks, R., Dumont, G., Waterman, B., Nho, S., “Low Rate of Return to Impact Activity Following Core Decompression for Femoral Head AVN in Military Servicemembers,” Military Medicine, usy163, 2018. 9. Greaver, B., Raabe, L., Fox, W., Burks, R., “CARVER 2.0: Integrating the Analytical Hierarchy Process’s multi-attribute decision-making weighting scheme for a center of gravity vulnerability analysis for US Special Operations Forces,” The Journal of Defense Modeling and Simulation, 15(1), 111-120, 2018. 10. Appleget, J., Cameron, F., Burks, R., Kline, J., “Wargaming at the Naval Postgraduate School,” CSIAC Journal of Cyber Security and Information Systems, 4(3), 18-23, 2016. 11. Waterman, B., Arroyo, W., Heida, K., Burks, R., Pallis, M., “SLAP Repairs With Combined Procedures Have Lower Failure Rate Than Isolated Repairs in a Military Population,” The Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine, 3(8):1-7,2015. 12. Belmont, P., Heida, K., Keeney, J., Burks, R.  

Nathan Christensen
Faculty Associate - Research
Expertise: Deputy Director, RDFP Global ECCO Program
MBA, International Management, Thunderbird School of Management, 2001
Mr. Nathan Christensen joined the United States Naval Postgraduate School in 2011 as a Faculty Associate and is the Deputy Director for Global ECCO (Education Collaboration Community Online), sponsored by the Regional Defense Fellowship Program (RDFP) under the Office of the Secretary of Defense. Global ECCO utilizes the full capabilities of NPS in a security cooperation mission, reaching out to partner countries to build sustainable capacity in the spirit of “Academic Diplomacy”. Prior to joining NPS, he spent 10 years developing and executing strategy and business development for large multi-national organizations. Additionally, he employed competitive intelligence training and expertise to make organizations more competitive relative to their environment and stakeholders: customers, competitors, distributors, technologies and macro-economic data etc. His areas of research interest include fiscal transparency/anti-corruption as well as counter terrorism & border security. He has developed and implemented DoS & DoD engagements on behalf of NPS in Brazil, Chile, India and Germany. He worked closely with the U.S. Embassy in Cairo to create & provide in-residence Border Security short courses for the Egyptian Ministries of Defense, Interior & Finance. This program was successfully expanded to Tunisia, Algeria & Morocco. After working in Chicago, Amsterdam and Los Angeles, Mr. Christensen moved to Monterey, California to join the NPS team. His responsibilities include international outreach and partnering efforts, program management, and leveraging opportunities to match academic and research capability & resources across Department of Defense, State Department, NATO and U.N. partner capacity building goals and objectives. Mr. Christensen received a Bachelor of Arts degree in Political Science with a Minor in Spanish Language from Colorado State University in 1998 and received his MBA in International Management from Thunderbird in 2001. Additionally, he is fluent in Portuguese and proficient in Spanish.  

Dorothy Denning
Distinguished Professor Emeritus
Expertise: Information Warfare, Codes and Ciphers, Networks and Society, and Data Communications
Ph.D., in Computer Science, Purdue University,

Nicholas Dew
Expertise: Innovation, Entrepreneurship, Strategic Management
Ph.D., University of Virginia-Darden School of Business, 2003,
Nick Dew is a Professor of Management at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, CA. He works in the Defense Management and Defense Analysis departments and with the Center for Homeland Defense & Security at NPS. His teaching and research focuses on entrepreneurship, innovation and strategy in defense and homeland security. He has a Ph.D. and MBA from the University of Virginia and experience working in the international energy industry. He is the author of over 50 research papers and an award-winning entrepreneurship textbook. His teaching and research has been funded by various DoD agencies and recognized in multiple teaching and research awards. He has served in a variety of academic leadership and program development roles at NPS. PUBLICATIONS  1. Dew, N. & Lewis, I, 2022. ”System-on-System Competition in Defense Innovation.” Expeditions with MCUP, Marine Corps University Press. 2. McVea, J. & Dew, N., 2021. “Unshackling imagination How philosophical pragmatism can liberate entrepreneurial decision-making.” Journal of Business Ethics, October, pp.1-16. 3. Ramesh, A, Dew, N., Read, S. & Sarasvathy, S., 2018. “The Choice to Become an Entrepreneur as a Response to Policy Incentives.” International Review of Entrepreneurship, 16(4): pp. 489-524.

Sean Everton
Expertise: Social Networks, Dark Networks, Terrorism, Irregular Warfare
Ph.D., Sociology, Stanford University, 2007
Sean Everton is a Professor in the Defense Analysis Department and the Co-Director of the CORE (Common Operational Research Environment) Lab at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS). Before joining NPS in 2007, he served as an adjunct professor at Santa Clara and Stanford universities. Professor Everton earned his M.A. and Ph.D. in Sociology at Stanford and wrote his doctoral thesis on the causes and consequences of status on venture capital firm performance. He specializes in using social network analysis to track and disrupt dark networks (e.g., criminal and terrorist networks), and he has published in the areas of social network analysis, sociology of religion, diffusion, economic sociology, and political sociology. His first book, Disrupting Dark Networks, was published by Cambridge University Press in 2012, and his second, Understanding Dark Networks (co-authored with Daniel Cunningham and Phil Murphy), was published by Rowman and Littlefield in 2016. His third, Networks and Religion, explores the interplay of networks and religion and was published by Cambridge University Press in 2018. Most recently, he published a Spanish introduction to social network analysis with Christopher Callaghan and General Alvarez Torres (Análisis de Redes Sociales). PUBLICATIONS 2023. “American Civil Religion in the Era of Donald Trump.” Forthcoming in Religions 14. 2022. Análisis de Redes Sociales. Lima, Peru: Escuela Superior de Guerra del Ejército (with Christopher Callaghan and Augusto Álvarez Torrez). 2022. “A Network Analysis of Twitter’s Crackdown on the QAnon Conversation.” Journal of Social Structure. 23(1): 4-27: (with Daniel Cunningham). 2022. “Historical and Comparative Research on Social Diffusion: Mechanisms, Methods, and Data.” Social Science History 46(2):431-472 (with Steven Pfaff). 2020. “Homegrown Terrorism: A Social Network Analysis of a Minnesota ISIS Cell.” Combatting Terrorism Exchange (CTX) 10(1):36-47 (with Marcelle Burroni). 2018. Networks and Religion: Ties That Bind, Loose, Build-up, and Tear Down. New York and Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2018. “Hiding in Plain Sight.” Nature Human Behaviour 2:115-116. doi: 10.1038/s41562-018-0299-2. 2017. “Social Media Exploitation by Covert Networks: A Case Study of ISIS.” Communications of the Association for Information Systems 1(5):97-120 (with Lee A. Freeman and Robert Schroeder). 2016. “Social Networks and Religious Violence.” Review of Religious Research 58: 191-217. 2016. Understanding Dark Networks: A Strategic Framework for the Use of Social Network Analysis. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield (with Daniel Cunningham and Philip Murphy). “Brokers and Key Players in the Internationalization of the FARC.” Studies in Conflict & Terrorism 36(6):477-502 (with Daniel Cunningham, Greg Wilson, Carlos Padilla, and Doug Zimmerman). 2012. Disrupting Dark Networks. New York and Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. PERSONAL WEBSITE

William P. Fox
Professor Emeritus
Expertise: Mathematical Modeling. Game Theory, Optimization, Probability & Statistics
Ph.D. at Clemson University,
Dr. William P. Fox is an Emeritus Professor in the Department of Defense Analysis at the Naval Postgraduate School. Currently, he is a Visiting Professor in the Department of Mathematics at the College of William and Mary. He received his BS degree from the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York, his MS in operations research from the Naval Postgraduate School, and his Ph.D. in Industrial Engineering from Clemson University. He has taught at the United States Military Academy for twelve years until retiring for active military service, at Francis Marion University where he was the chair of mathematics for eight years, and twelve years at the Naval Postgraduate School. He has many publications and scholarly activities including over twenty books, twenty-four chapters of books & technical reports, over one hundred and fifty journal articles, and over one hundred and fifty conference presentations and mathematical modeling workshops. He has directed several international mathematical modeling contests through the Consortium of Mathematics and its Applications (COMAP): the HiMCM and the MCM. His interests include applied mathematics, optimization (linear and nonlinear), mathematical modeling, statistical models, model for decision making in business, industry, medical and government, and computer simulations. He is a member of INFORMS, the Military Application Society of INFORMS, Mathematical Association of America, and Society for Industrial and Applied mathematics where he has held numerous positions. PUBLICATIONS Books Fox, W., Giordano, F., Maddox, S., & Weir, M. (1987). Mathematical Modeling with Minitab. Brooks Cole Publishing Co., Monterey, CA. Giordano, Frank, M. Weir, and W. P. Fox (1997). A First Course in Mathematical Modeling, 2nd Edition. Brooks-Cole Publishing Co. Pacific Grove, CA. Giordano, Frank, M. Weir, and W. P. Fox (1997). Instructor Solutions and Labs for: A First Course in Mathematical Modeling, 2nd Edition, Brooks Cole Publishing Co., and Pacific Grove, CA. Fox, William P. and Richard D. West, (1999). Math Modeling and Problem Solving I, Francis Marion University Printing Plant. (all royalties contributed to the Department of Mathematics, FMU). Fox, William P. and Richard D. West, (1999). Math Modeling and Problem Solving II, Francis Marion University Print Plant. (all royalties contributed to the Department of Mathematics, FMU). Giordano, Frank, M. Weir, and W. P. Fox (2003). A First Course in Mathematical Modeling, 3rd Edition, Brooks Cole Publishing Co., 538 pages, Pacific Grove, CA. Giordano, Frank, M. Weir, and W. P. Fox. (2003). Instructor Solutions and Labs for: A First Course in Mathematical Modeling, 3rd Edition, Brooks Cole Publishing Co., Pacific Grove, CA. Fox, William P. (2003). Technology Labs and Sample Exams- A First Course in Mathematical Modeling, 3rd Ed. Brooks Cole Publishing, Brooks-Cole Technical Web Support site. Giordano, Frank, W.P. Fox, S. Horton, and M. Weir. (2009). A First Course in Mathematical Modeling. 4th Edition, Cengage Publishing: Brooks/Cole Publishing Co., Belmont, CA. Giordano, Frank, W.P. Fox, S. Horton, and M. Weir. (2009). Instructors Manual and Solutions to A First Course in Mathematical Modeling, Cengage Publishing: Brooks/Cole Publishing Co., Belmont, CA. Fox, William P., Frank R Giordano, and Maurice Wier) (2012). Mathematical Modeling with Maple, Cengage Publishing, Boston, MA. Fox, William P. (2012). Instructors Manual and Solution to Mathematical Modeling with Maple, Cengage Publishing, Boston, MA. Giordano. F. R., William P. Fox, & Steve Horton. (2014). A First Course in Mathematical Modeling, 5th edition. Cengage Publishing, Boston, MA. Giordano. F. R., William P. Fox & Steve Horton (2014). Instructors Manual and Solutions to A First Course in Mathematical Modeling, 5th edition, Cengage Publishing: Brooks/Cole Publishing Co., Boston, MA. Fox, W. (2104). Mathematical Modeling Applied through MADM Methods in Social and Dark Networks, Lambert Publishing. Germany. Belanger, Jay William P. Fox, & Jie Wang, Editors. (2017). Write Right for the American Mathematical Contest in Modeling (Second Edition). April 12, 2017 Higher Education Press. Fox, W. P. (2017). Mathematical Modeling for Business Analytics, Taylor and Francis, CRC Press. December 2017. Fox, W.P. and Burks, R. E., (2019). Applications of Operations Research and Management Science for Military Decision Making, Springer Series. Fox, W. and Bauldry, W., (2019). Problem Solving with Maple. Volume 1. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press. Fox, W. and Bauldry, W., (2020). Problem Solving with Maple. Volume II, Taylor and Francis, CRC Press. Brian Albright and WP Fox. (2019). Advanced Mathematical Modeling with Technology. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press. Fox, W.P. (2021). Nonlinear Optimization. Taylor and Francis, CRC Press. Fox, W. P. (2021). Mathematical modeling in the age of a pandemic, Taylor and Francis, CRC Press. Fox, W.P. and Burks, R. (2021). Advanced mathematical modeling. Taylor and Francis, CRC press. Fox, W. P. and R. Sturdavant (2022). Probability and statistics for engineering and sciences with modeling using R. CRC Press. Boca. Raton, Fl  

Michael Freeman
Associate Provost for Faculty Affairs
Expertise: Terrorism, Political Violence, International Relations
Ph.D., Department of Political Science, University of Chicago, 2001
Michael Freeman is a professor in the Department of Defense Analysis. He is the author of Freedom or Security: The Consequences for Democracies Using Emergency Powers to Fight Terror (Praeger, 2003), the editor of Financing Terrorism: Case Studies (Ashgate 2012), the author of The Global Spread of Salafism (University of Nebraska, 2021), as well as the author of several journal articles and book chapters on terrorism, emergency powers, and terrorist financing. He is also the designer of nine online, “serious” games on terrorism and counterterrorism. In 2014, he was the recipient of NPS’s Hamming Award in recognition of his excellence in teaching and engagement with students. While at NPS, he was Chair of the Faculty Council (2017), Associate Provost for Faculty Affairs (2018-2021), and Vice Provost for Academic Affairs (2021-2022). PUBLICATIONS The Global Spread of Islamism and the Consequences for Terrorism. With Katherine Ellena and Amina Kator-Mubarez. University of Nebraska Press (Potomac), 2021. Terror Financing: Case Studies, editor. Ashgate, 2012. Freedom or Security: The Consequences for Democracies Using Emergency Powers to Fight Terror. Westport, CT: Praeger, 2003. “Education is the Technology the Navy Needs Most,” (with Todd Lyons) Proceedings July 2020. “Pushing the Envelope of Pedagogical Gaming: Dark Networks,” PS: Political Science and Politics, Vol. 50, No. 4, 2017. “A Theory of Terrorist Leadership (and its Consequences for Leadership Targeting” Terrorism and Political Violence, 2014. “How Terrorists Move Money: An Introduction,” with Moyara Ruehsen, Perspectives on Terrorism, Vol. 7, No. 4, 2013. “The Sources of Terrorist Financing: Theory and Typology,” Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, Vol. 34, No. 6, June 2011. “Pathways to Terror: Finding Patterns Prior to an Attack,” with David Tucker, and Steffen Merten, Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism, Vol. 5, No. 1, 2010. “Democracy, Al-Qaeda, and the Causes of Terrorism: A Strategic Analysis of U.S. Policy,” Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, Vol. 31, No. 1, January 2008. “Balancing National Security and Civil Liberties,” roundtable of six scholars, Focus on Law Studies, Vol. 22, No. 2, Spring 2007. “Terrorism and Civil Liberties in the United States: How to Have Both Freedom and Security,” Democracy and Security, Vol. 2, No. 2, July-December 2006.

Brian Greenshields
Associate Chair for Operations
Expertise: Irregular Warfare and Airpower; Special Operations
Col Greenshields, USAF (ret), currently serves as the Associate Chair for Operations in the Defense Analysis Department. Col (ret) Greenshields earned a B.S. from the US Air Force Academy and a M.A. “With Distinction” from the Naval Postgraduate School. Col (ret) Greenshields is a Master Navigator with over 3,600 hours in HC and MC-130P aircraft having spent the majority of his career in Air Force Special Operations or in Special Duty assignments. He served as Director of Operations at the 67 SOS, RAF Mildenhall, UK; commanded the 550 SOS, Kirtland AFB, NM; was Deputy Group Commander, 16th Operations Group (OG), and later commander, 16th Operations Group (re-designated the 1st Special Operations Group), Hurlburt Field, FL. He also served as the Combined/Joint Special Operations Air Component Commander for both OIF and OEF.

Shannon Houck
Assistant Professor
Expertise: Influence and Persuasion; Psychological Resilience and Resistance; Social Psychology of Extremism, Polarization, and Conflict; Language Analysis; Experimental and Quantitative Methods
Ph.D., Experimental (Social) Psychology, University of Montana, 2015
Dr. Shannon Houck is an Assistant Professor in the Defense Analysis Department at the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School (NPS). She is a Social Psychologist with expertise on the science of influence and persuasion, psychological resilience and resistance, and extremism. Prior to joining NPS, she was a faculty member at Syracuse University from 2016-2020. She is the author of over 40 scholarly articles and book chapters, and her research has been featured on popular news outlets such as the New York Times, Psychology Today, and USA Today. PUBLICATIONS Houck, S.C. (2022). Psychological Capabilities for Resilience. War on the Rocks. Houck, S.C. & Allan, J.R. (2022). QAnon’s Psychological Influence: Investigating Q’s Digital Messaging. Combatting Terrorism Exchange. Borer & Houck, S.C. (2022). Relative Weakness: The Secret to Understanding Irregular Warfare. Small Wars Journal. Dundon, M. & Houck, S.C. (2022). Adversarial Propaganda: How Enemies Target the U.S. to Breed Societal Division. Journal of Applied Security Research. Maness, R.C., Houck, S.C., & Lorentz, R. (2022). Operations in the Information Environment and Cyber-enabled Information Operations. In Interdisciplinary Study of Combatting Hybrid Threats. Houck, S.C., Salvati, J.M., Newman, L.S., Vrij, A. (2021). Simulating interrogation in the lab: Examining the effectiveness of pain, coercive verbal pressure, and rapport-building for obtaining reliable information. Journal of Applied Security Research. Houck, S.C. Conway, L.G., & Zubrod, A. (2021). Automated Integrative Complexity: A language analysis tool for psychological research. In R. Boyd & M. Dehghani (Eds.), The Atlas of Language Analysis in Psychology. Guilford Press. Houck, S.C., Branagan, B., Gramm, J., & Crisafulli, J. (2021). Changing Hearts and Brains: SOF Must Prepare Now for Neurowarfare. Small Wars Journal. neurowarfare Conway, L.G., III, Conway, K.R., & Houck, S.C. (2020). Validating Automated Integrative Complexity: Natural language processing and the Donald Trump test. Journal of Social and Political Psychology, 8(2), 504-524. Houck, S.C., & Conway & L.G. III. (2019). Strategic communication and the integrative complexity-ideology relationship: Meta-analytic findings reveal differences between public politicians and private citizens in their use of simple language. Political Psychology, 40: 1119-1141. Houck, S.C., McFarland, J., Machia, L.V., & Conway, L.G. III. (2019). When beliefs lead to (im)moral action: How believing in torture’s effectiveness shapes the endorsement of its use. Political Psychology, 40: 1315-1339. Conway, L.G, III, Houck, S.C., Gornick, L.J., & Repke, M.A. (2018). Finding the Loch Ness Monster: Left-Wing Authoritarianism in the United States. Political Psychology, 39(5), 1049–67. Houck, S.C., Repke, M.A., Conway, L.G. III. (2017). Understanding what makes terrorist groups’ propaganda effective: An integrative complexity analysis of ISIL and Al Qaeda. Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism, 12(2), 105-118. Houck, S.C., & Repke, M.A. (2017). When and why we torture: A review of psychology research. Translational Issues in Psychological Science, 3(3), 272-283. Houck, S.C., & Conway, L.G. III (2015). Ethically investigating torture efficacy: A new methodology to test the influence of pain on decision-making processes in experimental interrogation scenarios. Journal of Applied Security Research, 10(4), 510-524. Houck, S.C., Conway, L.G., III, Gornick, L.J. (2014). Automated integrative complexity: Current challenges and future directions. Political Psychology, 35, 647-659.

Thomas Jamison
Assistant Professor
Expertise: International History, Naval Warfare, Irregular Warfare, China, U.S. Foreign Relations
Ph.D., International History, Harvard University, 2020
Dr. Tommy Jamison is a military historian and Asst. Professor of Strategic Studies in the Defense Analysis Dept., Naval Postgraduate School. His work explores the naval history of the Pacific, with an emphasis on technological shifts and institutional adaptation. In 2024, he will enjoy a Council on Foreign Relations International Affairs Fellowship in Tokyo. Prior to arriving at NPS, he held a Predoctoral Fellowship at the Clements Center for National Security, University of Texas at Austin. Dr. Jamison’s dissertation “Pacific Wars” won the Society for Military History’s Coffman Prize for Best Dissertation (2021) and the Oxford University Press USA Award in International History (2022). That work is currently under revision for publication with Cambridge University Press. In addition, he has published award-winning articles with the Journal of Military History and Technology and Culture. He holds a Ph.D. (2020) and MA (2017) in International History from Harvard University, a BA in History from Grinnell College (2009). From 2009-2014, Dr. Jamison worked as a Defense Intelligence Agency Staff Officer and Naval Intelligence Officer in both the Western Pacific and Afghanistan. He currently lives in Monterey, CA with his wife and their Belgian Malinois. PUBLICATIONS Manuscripts: “The Not-So Pacific: Pacific Wars and the Making of U.S. Sea Power.” (Cambridge University Press, Forthcoming) Peer Reviewed Articles: Technology and Culture, “Man the Torpedo (Boats!): Gender and Technology in the Making of Modern Naval War” (2022, Gibson Prize, 2023) Journal of Advanced Military Studies, “The Port-Hopping War: Amphibious Operations and the War of the Pacific” (2022) Comparative Strategy, “Taking the Modern System to Sea” (2022) Journal of Military History, “The War of the Pacific, Technology and U.S. Naval Development: An International History of Regional War” (2018, Moncado/Vandervort Prize, 2019) Intelligence and National Security, “Geospatial Intelligence and the U.S. Exploring Expedition (1838-1842): Reframing the History of Naval Intelligence” (2018)

Amina Kator-Mubarez
Faculty Associate - Research
Expertise: Global ECCO Program, Security Cooperation
M.A., Security Studies (Combating Terrorism), Naval Postgraduate School, 2014
Ms. Amina Kator-Mubarez joined the United States Naval Postgraduate School (NPS) in 2011 and is currently a Faculty Associate for Global ECCO (Education Collaboration Community Online), sponsored by the Regional Defense Fellowship Program (RDFP) under the Office of the Secretary of Defense. Global ECCO utilizes the full capabilities of NPS in a security cooperation mission, reaching out to partner countries to build sustainable capacity in the spirit of “Academic Diplomacy”. Before joining the Global ECO team, she also worked as a Research Associate for the Program for Culture and Conflict Studies at NPS, where she drafted and briefed unclassified strategy papers related to counterinsurgency and stability operations in Afghanistan for Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and United States Central Command. Lastly, she is fluent in Dari and proficient in Urdu.

Rebecca Lorentz
Faculty Associate - Research
Expertise: DoD IO Center for Research, Global ECCO Program
M.A., Public Policy, Panetta Institute, 2010
Ms. Rebecca Lorentz has been with the department of Defense Analysis at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey since 2009. She received a Masters of Public Policy from the Panetta Institute of Public Policy in 2010. Her work has been published in Afghan Endgames (Georgetown University Press, 2012), and Gangs and Guerrillas (NPS, 2011) writing about the complexity of social issues and civil society. She is currently the Deputy Director of the DoD Information Strategy and Research Center at the Naval Postgraduate School. Current fields of study include misinformation, disinformation and how each are used in information operations to affect behavior and strategy as well as the role of cognitive biases in information warfare.

Ryan Maness
Assistant Professor
Expertise: Cyber Strategy and Policy, Cyber-enabled Information Operations, Operations in the Information Environment
Ph.D., Political Science, University of Illinois at Chicago, 2013
Ryan C. Maness (Ph.D., University of Illinois, Chicago 2013) is an assistant professor and the academic associate for the curriculum on information strategy and political warfare (698) at the Naval Postgraduate School. He is also the director of the DoD Information Strategy Research Center at NPS. His research includes operations in the information environment, specifically in cyberspace, cyber strategy, and power dynamics and interactions among states in cyberspace. Current research includes the collection of all state-initiated cyber incidents, cyber-enabled information operations, and information campaigns for the years 2000-2020, called the Dyadic Cyber Incident and Campaign Dataset (DCID) 2.0. These data are to be open-sourced and publicly available and will give scholars and practitioners new tools to uncover the dynamics of cyber and information conflict within and through cyberspace. Other current research is measuring escalation within and through cyberspace by capturing DIME events enacted with cyber operations, and the target state’s responses to these combined foreign policy actions, cyber operations’ role in the Russo-Ukraine war, influence operations from China and Russia, and sponsored research with ONR and NRP. His forthcoming book, Cyberwar versus Cyber Realities 2.0, is a second edition of his 2015 book with Oxford University Press. Another book proposal on escalation is in negotiations. He has also published Cyber Strategy (2018, Oxford) and Russia’s Coercive Diplomacy (2015, Macmillan) as well as several top journals in security studies. He teaches Conflict in Cyberspace, Computer Network Attack and Defense, and Conflict in Europe and the post-Soviet space in the Defense Analysis Department at NPS. PUBLICATIONS Books: Cyberwar versus Cyber Realities 2.0: Cyber Conflict in the International System (2nd ed.), (New York: Oxford University Press, 2023 Forthcoming). Cyber Strategy: The Evolving Character of Power and Coercion (New York: Oxford University Press, 2018) ISBN: 9780190618094. Russia’s Coercive Diplomacy: Energy, Cyber and Maritime Policy as New Sources of Power (London: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015) ISBN: 9781137479433. Cyber War versus Cyber Realities: Cyber Conflict in the International System (New York: Oxford University Press, 2015) ISBN: 9780190204792. Peer Reviewed Journal Articles: “The Dynamics of Cyber and Cross-Domain Escalation.” 2023, Submitted, Under Review. “Expanding the Dyadic Cyber Incident and Campaign (DCID) Dataset: Cyber Conflict from 2000 to 2020.” 2022, Forthcoming, Cyber Defense Review. “Fancy Bears and Digital Trolls: Cyber Strategy with a Russian Twist.” Journal of Strategic Studies, 42 (2, 2019): 212-234. “How We Stopped Worrying about Cyber Doom and Started Collecting Data.” Politics and Governance, 6 (2, 2018): 49-60. “Rethinking the Data Wheel: Automating Open-Access, Public Data on Cyber Conflict.” In 2018 10th International Conference on Cyber Conflict, CyCon X: Maximizing Effects, T. Minárik, R. Jakschis, L. Lindström (Eds.), NATO CCD COE Publications, Tallinn, 2018. “Creating a Safe and Prosperous Cyberspace: The Path to Ise-Shima Cyber Security Norms.” The Strategy Bridge, 8/2/2017. “The Impact of Cyber Conflict on International Interactions.” Armed Forces and Society 42 (2, 2016): 301-323. “The Dynamics of Cyber Conflict between Rival Antagonists, 2001-2011.” Journal of Peace Research, 51 (3, 2014): 347-360. “Russia and the Near Abroad: Applying a Risk Barometer for War.” Journal of Slavic Military Studies, 25 (2, 2012): 125-148. Book Chapters and other Journal Articles “The Failure of Cyber War and the Promise of Operations in the Information Environment” (2022): forthcoming. “The Power of Information: Cyber Conflict in the Age of Great Power Competition,” in Strategy, 7th Edition, (2022): Oxford University Press. “What do we know about Cyber War” Vasquez/Mitchell (eds.) What do We Know about War, 3rd ed. (2021): Rowman and Littlefield. “Death by a Thousand Cuts: Is Russia Winning the Information War with the West?” in Security Challenges in the EU-Russia Relations, I. Pawel Karolewski and Maia D. Cross (eds.), (2021): University of Michigan Press. "Cyber Conflict at the Intersection of Information Operations." Information Warfare in the Age of Cyber Conflict (2020): Routledge. “A Crisis of Trust in Transatlantic Cybersecurity Relations in the Post-Snowden Era.” in The Politics of Resilience and Transatlantic Order: Enduring Crisis? Gordon Friedrichs, Sebastian Harnisch, and Cameron G. Thies (eds.), (2019): Routledge: 143-160. “The Dynamics of Cyber Dispute Mediation and Resolution,” in The Handbook on Mediating International Crises, Jonathan Wilkenfield, Kyle Beardsley, and David Quin (eds.), Edward Elgar Publishers: 350-359. “International Cyber Conflict and National Security,” in The Oxford Handbook of US National Security, Derek Reveron, Nikolas Gvosdev, and John Cloud (eds.), (2018): Oxford University Press. “International Political Theory and Cyber Security” The Oxford Handbook of International Political Theory, Robyn Eckersley and Chris Brown, (eds.), (2018): Oxford University Press. “Did Russia Just Hand Donald Trump the Presidency?” in US Election Analysis 2016: Media, Voters and the Campaign. (2017): Eds. Darren Lillekar, Einar Thorsen, Daniel Jackson, and Anastasia Veneti, pp. 72-73. “Countering Russian Aggression with Sanctions: Limited Options and Self-Defeating Strategies” Enduring Questions Essay Contribution to the ABC-CLIO: American Government Idea Exchange (2016). “Cyber Spillover Conflicts: Transitions from Cyber Conflict to Conventional Foreign Policy Disputes?” in Conflict in Cyberspace, Karsten Friis and Jens Ringsmose, Eds., (2016): Routledge. “The Coming Cyberp PERSONAL WEBSITE   

Michael Mollohan
Faculty Associate - Research
Expertise: Irregular Warfare Education
Ph.D., Education & Organizational Leadership (Current Doctoral Student), 2022
Mr. Mollohan is the lead for Regional Defense Fellowship Program Evaluation team at the Naval Postgraduate School Defense Analysis Department focused on Irregular Warfare curriculum development, evaluation, and operationalization. Prior to his current position, Michael served as the regional security and policy advisor for the SOJ3-International, Special Operations Command Pacific. His area of responsibilities included the design, development, and execution of multinational Special Operations Forces (SOF) and related security sector education and cooperation. Michael is a retired Marine Corps Foreign Area Officer with more than 35 years of combined active duty and civilian service. He served as a military professor, senior service advisor for the Marine Corps, course director and co-lead on the counter-terrorism program for the Daniel K. Inouye, Asia Pacific Center for Security Studies (DKI-APCSS). While on active duty he had the privilege of serving in several countries as a military advisor and operations officer including assignments as a peacekeeper and the United Nations Operations Officer in the Republic of Georgia during the crisis of 2008-2009. As a military professor and senior lecturer, Michael has conducted research and executive education programs for senior decision makers to operational leaders from numerous U.S. and Partner Nation security practitioner and academic organizations across the interagency, public and private sector. His areas of research and lecturing interest include Irregular Warfare and Security Education, Southeast Asia, Russia and the Former Soviet Union, Combatting Terrorism, Resiliency and Crises, Resistance and Global Power Competition. A current doctoral student completing his dissertation in SOF Education and Leadership, he also holds master’s degrees in National Security from the Naval Postgraduate School) and Business from Troy State University and is a graduate of the U.S. Naval Academy (Political Science, Russia and the Former Soviet Union). LINKEDIN PROFILE

Siamak Tundra Naficy
Senior Lecturer
Expertise: Anthropology
Ph.D., Anthropology, University of California, Los Angeles, 2010;
An anthropologist (PhD at UCLA, 2010) with a wide-ranging, interdisciplinary approach to social, biological, psychological, and cultural issues. Interests range from the anthropological approach to conflict theory to sacred values, wicked problems, cognitive science, and animal behavior. PUBLICATIONS 1) Barbarism Begins at Home  2) "Towards an Anthropology of Delinquency (Feared and Revered)" chrome extension://efaidnbmnnnibpcajpcglclefindmkaj/    3) "A Ukrainian State of Mind"  4) "Anti-Strategy (Why the U.S. is on the Brink of All-Out War with Iran" 

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Julia McClenon
Faculty Associate - Research
Expertise: Anthropology (Behavioral and Cultural), Sociolinguistic Analysis, Chinese Thought and Grand Strategy, Cognitive Science, Open-source China
MA, Religious Studies and Cognitive Science, University of California, Santa Barbara, 2021
Julia McClenon is a cultural and behavioral ethnographer (anthropologist) and sociolinguist, with a focus on Asia, China, and specific diaspora in Asia and America. She is an interagency civil servant with experience in both the Department of Defense and the Department of State. She was previously commissioned as a Foreign Service Officer of the U.S. diplomatic corps. For State Department, she was Chair of the Consul General's Civil-Society Working Group on Religion in China. She earned her M.A. in Religious Studies from the University of California, Santa Barbara on research and teaching fellowships as a member of the cognitive science REMLab group, where she conducted ethnographic and sociolinguistic research on Chinese worldviews, calendrical systems, and CCP cultural narratives. In 2010, her team earned official commendation from the Assistant Secretary of Defense for Special Operations and Low-Intensity Conflict. Julia is interested in interdisciplinary research opportunities. She also enjoys speaking at community events and has spoken for a variety of community groups including the Unitarian Universalist Church's series on worldviews (Confucianism and Daoism); the Great Decisions speakers series (current events between the US and China); International Relations fraternal orders (IR experience); Cross-Cultural Understanding & Communication for UCSB student groups; Culture Shock for exchange students; and more. PUBLICATIONS "We're WEIRD and Our Adversaries Know It: Biases in Psychology Leave the United States Vulnerable to Cognitive Domain Operations," Modern War Institute, West Point, forthcoming 2023. "Perhaps an Other Time: an Interdisciplinary (Re)Consideration of Historical Anthropology in View of the Cognitive Science of Time, Cultural Models Theory, and the Stems and Branches Chinese Calendrical System," Journal of Cognitive Historiography, Vol. 7 No. 1-2, Equinox Publishing, 2022. "Suzhou's Gardens," Zhejiang InTouch Magazine, 2007. "This Ain't Polo's Hangzhou," Hangzhou Weekly Newspaper, 2006.

Gordon McCormick
Ph.D., School of Advanced International Studies, The Johns Hopkins University, 1987
A variety of models for understanding insurgency and planning the counterinsurgency (COIN) response have been developed. One model that has become respected both in academic and military context is the "Magic Diamond" model developed by Dr. Gordon McCormick. The model involved four key elements or players, with mirrored strategies for their interactions. Each element will have a "mirrored" strategy, in which the way in which it imposes or aids insurgency is one image, and where the way that it interacts with counterinsurgency is the reflection. This model develops a symmetrical view of the required actions for both the Insurgent and COIN forces to achieve success. In this way the counterinsurgency model can demonstrate how both the insurgent and COIN forces succeed or fail. The model's strategies and principle apply to both forces, therefore the degree the forces follow the model should have a direct correlation to the success or failure of either the Insurgent or COIN force.  

Cecilia Panella
Faculty Associate- Research
Expertise: Emerging Technologies, Military Innovation, Maritime Irregular Warfare, Deterrence/Coercion, Strategic Competition
Johns Hopkins SAIS in American Foreign Policy and International Economics, 2019
Cecilia Panella is a Faculty Associate - Research in the Department of Defense Analysis at NPS. She works primarily with the Applied Design for Innovation (697) curriculum and focuses her research on the intersection of emerging technologies and strategic competition. Prior to her role at NPS, she was a Learning Analyst for a Special Assistant to the Secretary of the Navy in the Office of the Chief Learning Officer. She has a graduate degree from Johns Hopkins SAIS in American Foreign Policy and International Economics. PUBLICATIONS Leveraging a Maritime Special Operations Forces (SOF) Cognitive Edge for Hybrid Threats. “Interdisciplinary Study of Combating Hybrid Threats” Naval Research Project. NPS-EAG-22-001R. October 2022. Outlook Not So Good: Innovation, Warfare, and the Future of Defense. Future of Warfare Conference. 5-7 OCT 2022. The War Studies Research Centre (WSRC) of the Netherlands Defence Academy (NLDA) and The Changing Character of War Centre, University of Oxford. From the Lighthouse to the Christmas Tree: Enabling Distributed Innovation in the U.S. Military. 27 July 2022. Modern War Institute at West Point.  Innovation at the Edge: Development of a Dashboard Assessment Tool for Utilization by Remote Learning Populations. 28 OCT 2021. Data Analytics informing Teaching and Hybrid Learning (DAITA HL) Microgrant Recipient.  Project Genghis- A New American Playbook for Great Power Competition. 20 OCT 2021. 10th Annual Pacific Information Operations & Electromagnetic Warfare Symposium.  Intellectual Preparedness for Great Power Competition. 8 NOV 2019.   

Wayne Porter
Senior Lecturer, CAPT USN (ret)
Expertise: Co-Director, CORE Lab, Director, Littoral Operations Center
Ph.D., Information Science, Naval Postgraduate School,
Dr. Wayne Porter, CAPT, USN (ret), is a Senior Lecturer in the Defense Analysis and Systems Engineering Departments of the Naval Postgraduate School, where he also serves as Co- Director of the CORE Lab and Director of the Littoral Operations Center. He holds a Ph.D in Information Sciences and two Masters of Science degrees – in Computer Science and Joint C4I Systems Technology - from the Naval Postgraduate School. Military duty included Japan, England, Italy, the Balkans, Bahrain (COMFIFTHFLT ACOS Intelligence and MOC Deputy of Operations in the Persian Gulf/East Africa), and three tours on the personal staff of ADM Mike Mullen, including Special Assistant for Strategy to both the Chief of Naval Operations (N00Z) and Chairman of the Joint Chiefs. He subsequently served as Chair, Systemic Strategy and Complexity at Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California and retired from the Navy in July 2014 after 28 years of active service. Dr. Porter was hired as a faculty member at NPS in 2015 and in 2017 he provided systems analysis for the SECNAV’s Strategic Readiness Review. While working for the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff ADM Mullen, CAPT Porter co-authored, with Colonel Mark Mykleby, “A National Strategic Narrative.” Published by the Woodrow Wilson Center for International Scholars a National Strategic Narrative was subsequently cited Pulitzer Award winning author Tom Friedman, CNN commentator Fareed Zakaria, former UK Secretary for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs David Miliband, former Foreign Minister of Israel Shlomo Ben Ami, and Secretary of Education Arne Duncan among many others ( His articles have appeared in Connections (social network analysis journal), The Center for International Maritime Security website, The Homeland Security Affairs Journal, Grounded Theory Review, Harvard Business Review, Journal of American Foreign Policy Interests, The HotSpring Quarterly, the Washington Times, two OSD/JS White Papers, Naval Institute Proceedings, and the 8th Euromicro Workshop on Parallel and Distributed Processing. Dr Porter contributed the chapter, The Value of System Dynamics Modeling in Policy Analytics and Planning in the textbook, Policy Analytics, Modelling, and Informatics: Innovative Tools for Solving Complex Social Problems, Springer Publishing (2018). Wayne’s doctoral dissertation was an action research case study in which he used system dynamics to model the Steinbeck Innovation Cluster strategy he helped develop linking the technology and innovation of Silicon Valley with the agriculture and aquaculture industries of Monterey County, California and the Salinas Valley. Articles describing concepts of that strategy have appeared in the Financial Times and Forbes Magazine. Dr. Porter was recently named a Lifetime Achiever by Marquis’ Who’s Who in America. His civilian and military awards include the Ellis Island Medal of Honor, the Vice Admiral Rufus B. Taylor Award for Professional Excellence in Naval Intelligence, the Defense Superior Service Medal, four Legions of Merit, and the NATO Meritorious Service Medal. Dr Porter is a former “Walton Fellow” at Arizona State University’s Global Institute of Sustainability.   PUBLICATIONS Connections (Social Network Analysis Journal), The Center for International Maritime Security website, The Homeland Security Affairs Journal, Grounded Theory Review, Harvard Business Review, Journal of American Foreign Policy Interests, The HotSpring Quarterly, the Washington Times, two OSD/JS White Papers, Naval Institute Proceedings, and the 8th Euromicro Workshop on Parallel and Distributed Processing. Dr Porter contributed the chapter, The Value of System Dynamics Modeling in Policy Analytics and Planning in the textbook, Policy Analytics, Modelling, and Informatics: Innovative Tools for Solving Complex Social Problems, Springer Publishing (2018).

Ian Rice
Senior Lecturer
Expertise: Helping Defense Analysis students achieve their academic, career, and life goals.
Ian Rice is a retired United States Army officer. He has primarily served with or in support of special operations forces during his career. He has been stationed overseas in Germany, Okinawa, and Korea as well he has deployed for 45 months between Iraq and Afghanistan. Most recently, he led the United States Mission to Iraq’s Sunni trial engagement effort in Iraq during Operation Inherent Resolve in 2016-2017. From 2013 through 2018, he served as an active-duty faculty member in the Defense Analysis Department. He is a 2003 graduate of Defense Analysis and he is a PhD Candidate in Political Science at the University of California Los Angeles. Ian has taught sections of “Conflict in the Information Age,” “Psychological Operations and Deception,” “The History of Special Operations,” and “Military Organization and Technological Change.” He is also interested in developing courses on conflict-based state-building and the dynamics of combined operations namely security force assistance and military advising. Ian's most notable publication with Craig Whiteside, “Black Ops: Islamic State and Innovation in Irregular Warfare” is being developed into a book regarding the concepts and capabilities of special operations conducted by non-state actors.  

Nancy Roberts
Professor Emerita
Expertise: Design Thinking; Grand Strategy; Entrepreneurship and Innovation; Wicked Problems; Social Network Analysis; Change and Transformation; Power and Politics
Ph.D., in Education, Stanford University,;
PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS •Director of DA-NPS Design Program (2010-2015) •Co-Founder and Co-Director, CORE Lab, Department of Defense Analysis, School of Operational and Information Sciences, Naval Postgraduate School (2006-2010) •Professor, Department of Defense Analysis, Naval Postgraduate School (2005-2015) •Professor of Strategic Management, Graduate School of Business and Public Policy, Naval Postgraduate School, (1990-2005 and joint appointment 2005-2015) •Professor of National Security Affairs (joint appointment), Department of National Security, Graduate School of International Studies (2001-2004) •Visiting Associate Professor, Graduate School of Business, Stanford University (1987) •Associate Professor of Organization Behavior, Department of Administrative Sciences, Naval Postgraduate School, (1985-1989) •Assistant Professor, Department of Management, Carlson School of Management, University of Minnesota (1983-1985). SELECTED HONORS AND AWARDS •Superior Civil Service Award, Department of the Navy, 2 December 2015. •Research Recognition Award, Graduate School of Business and Public Policy, Naval Postgraduate School, 2003 •Freider Naschold Award for Best Paper, International Public Management Network Conference 2000, Sidney, Australia. •Charles Levine Best Paper Award, Public Sector Division, Academy of Management, 1989 PUBLICATIONS Books and Monographs: •Roberts, N.C. 2023. Design Strategy: Challenges in Wicked Problem Territory. Cambridge: MIT Press. •Arquilla, J. and Roberts, N.C. 2017. The Design for Warfare. Monterey, CA: DoD Information Operations Center for Research at the Naval Postgraduate School. •Roberts, N.C. Ed. 2016. Strategic Design for SOCPAC 2030. Monterey, CA: Naval Postgraduate School. •Berg-Knutsen, E. and Roberts, N.C. (Eds.) 2015. Strategic Design for NORSOF 2025. Monterey, CA: Naval Postgraduate School. •Roberts, N.C. (Ed.). 2007. The Age of Direct Citizen Participation. New York: ME. Sharpe. •Roberts, N.C. (Ed.). 2002. Transformative Power of Dialogue. London: Elsevier Press. •Roberts, N.C. and King, P.J. 1996. Transforming Public Policy: Dynamics of Policy Entrepreneurship and Innovation. San Francisco: Jossey Bass. •Thomas, K.W. and Roberts, N.C. Eds. 1988. Troubled Waters: A Sourcebook of Cases in Management and Organization. Monterey, CA: Naval Postgraduate School. Selected Journal Articles, Chapters: •Arquilla, J. and Roberts, N.C. 2020. “Post-COVID Grand Strategy,” The National Interest, No 169, Sept-Oct, pp. 63-69. •Roberts, N.C. 2017. “SOF as Designers.” Interdisciplinary Perspectives on Special Operations Forces. G. Højstrup Christensen (Ed). Copenhagen: Royal Danish Defence College, pp 120-140. •Roberts, N.C. and Everton, S.F. 2016. “Monitoring and Disrupting Dark Networks: A Bias Toward the Center and What It Costs Us.” Middle East Review of Public Administration, 2(1): 1-18; also published in Eradicating Terrorism from the Middle East: Policy and Administrative Approaches. A. R. Dawoody (Ed.). Heidelberg: Springer. •Roberts, N.C. 2015. “Encontrado O Espacp Do Problema.” Cidade Solidaria, No. 33, pp. 40-45. •Roberts, N.C. and Longley, C. 2013. “Against All Odds: Bottom-Up Entrepreneurship and Innovation in the Department of Defense.” S. P. Osborne & L. Brown (eds.). Handbook of Innovation in Public Sector Services. Eheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar, pp. 176-192. •Roberts, N.C. 2012. “Spanning Bleeding Boundaries Redoux.” Revised and reprinted in R. Durant (ed.). Debating Public Administration and Public Policy. •Roberts, N.C. 2011. “Beyond Smokestacks and Silos: Open-Source, Web-Enabled Coordination in Organizations and Networks?” Public Administration Review, Sept.-Oct.: 677-693. •Roberts, N.C. 2011. “Tracking and Disrupting Dark Networks: Challenges of Data Collection and Analysis.” Information Systems Frontiers, 13(1): 5-19. •Roberts, N.C. and Everton, S. 2011. “Strategies for Combating Dark Networks.” Journal of Social Structure 12(2):1-32. •Chen, H., Denning, D., and Roberts, N.C. 2011. “Dark Web Forum Portal 2.5: Evolution and Expansion.” Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE International Conference on Intelligence and Security Informatics. •Roberts, N.C. 2010. “Web-based, Open-source Platforms for Collaboration.” In J. Svara and J. Denhardt, eds. The Connected Community: Local Governments as Partners in Citizen Engagement and Community Building. Phoenix: Alliance for Innovation. •Roberts, N.C. 2010. “Entrepreneurship in Peace Operations.” Journal of Civil Society, 6(01):1-21. •Yulei Zhang, Shuo Zeng, Chun-Neng Huang, Li Fan, Ximing Yu, Yan Dang, Catherine Larson, Dorothy Denning, Nancy Roberts, Hsinchun Chen. 2010. “Developing a Dark Web Collection and Infrastructure for Computational and Social Sciences”. Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE International Conference on Intelligence and Security Informatics. •Roberts, N.C. 2010. “Spanning 'Bleeding' Boundaries: Humanitarianism, NGOs, and the Civilian-Military Nexus in the Post-Cold War Era.” Public Administration Review, 70(2):212-222. PROFESSIONAL ACTIVITIES AND SERVICE: •Co-Editor, Research in Public Management Series, Information Age Publisher (2001-2008) •Associate Editor, Public Administration Review (2006-2009) •Member of Editorial Boards: The American Review of Public  Administration; Public Management Review; International Public Management Journal • International Public Management Review; Program Manager, Security Building in Post-Conflict Environments, Naval Postgraduate School (2001-2003) • Division Chair, Public and Nonprofit Division, Academy of Management (1996-1997) •Program Chair, Public and Nonprofit Division, Academy of Management, (1994-1995).

Robert Schroeder
Faculty Associate - Research
Expertise: Social Network Analysis, Visual Analytics, Maritime Network Analysis, Social Media Analysis, Geospatial Analysis
M.A., International Policy Analysis, Monterey Institute of International Studies, 2011
Rob Schroeder is a Faculty Associate for Research in the CORE Lab within the Defense Analysis Department and a PhD Student in the Information Sciences Department at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS). He is currently researching how to use open source information gathered largely from social media in order to understand and map the changing dynamics in conflict areas and exploring the use of network analysis to analyze maritime traffic patterns. He has presented some of this research at conferences (INFORMS and INSNA). PUBLICATIONS Everton, S., Everton, T., Green, A. et al. Strong ties and where to find them: or, why Neville and Bellatrix might be more important than Harry and Tom. Soc. Netw. Anal. Min. 12, 112 (2022). Everton, S. F., & Schroeder, R. (2019). Plagues, Pagans, and Christians: Differential Survival, Social Networks, and the Rise of Christianity. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 58(4), 775–789. Porter, W., Schroeder, R., Callaghan, C., Barreto, A., Bussell, S., Young, B., … Eiff, J. Von. (2019). Mapping Gray Maritime Networks. Connections, 39(1), 1–12. Freeman, L. A., Schroeder, R., & Everton, S. F. (2017). Social Media Exploitation by Covert Networks: A Case Study of ISIS. Communications of the Association for Information Systems, 41, 97–120. Schroeder, R., Everton, S. F., & Shepherd, R. (2014). The Strength of Tweet Ties. In N. Agarwal, M. Lim, & R. T. Wigand (Eds.), Online Collective Action (pp. 179–195). Springer Vienna. Schroeder, R., Everton, S. F., & Shepherd, R. (2012). Mining twitter data from the Arab Spring. Combating Terrorism Exchange, 2(4), 54–64.

Kalev "Gunner" Sepp
Expertise: National Security Policy, Military Strategy, Special Operations, Irregular Warfare
Ph.D., Harvard University, 2001
Dr. Sepp is presently a Senior Lecturer in the Defense Analysis Department at the U.S. Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California. From 2019 to 2020, he was Chair of the department.  Dr. Sepp served as the Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for Special Operations and Counterterrorism, from 2007 to 2009. He was a member of the White House Counterterrorism Strategy Group, and was responsible for the Department of Defense global counterterrorism portfolio. This included policy oversight of all special operations world-wide, and formulation of the Department’s global counterterrorism strategy.  A former U.S. Army Special Forces (Green Beret) officer, he earned his Ph.D. at Harvard University, and his Combat Infantryman Badge in the Salvadoran Civil War. Dr. Sepp also graduated from the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College with a Master’s degree in Military Art and Science. His unit assignments included the 82d Airborne Division, the 2d Ranger Battalion, the 11th Armored Cavalry Regiment in Germany, and the 2d Infantry Division in Korea, among others. He was an assistant professor of history at the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, and a resident scholar at Harvard University.  He served as an analyst and strategist in Iraq and Afghanistan, and as an expert member of the Baker-Hamilton Bipartisan Commission on Iraq, a.k.a. the Iraq Study Group.  While assigned in Iraq, Dr. Sepp wrote “Best Practices in Counterinsurgency,” later published in Military Review (May-June 2005), and reprinted in Arabic, Spanish and Portuguese. He is co-author of Weapon of Choice: U.S. Army Special Operations in Afghanistan, with R. Kiper, J. Schroder, and C. Briscoe (2003). He also authored chapters for Assessing War: The Challenge of Measuring Success and Failure (2015), Leadership: The Warrior’s Art (2001), War in Iraq: Planning and Execution (2007), Fuehrungsdenken in europaeischen und nordamerikanischen Steitkraeften im 19. und 20. Jahrhundert (2001), A Global History of Relocation in Counterinsurgency Warfare (2020), and the NATO report, Counterinsurgency: The Challenge for NATO Strategy and Operations (2010), along with other articles, essays, reviews and studies.  Dr. Sepp was named one of “The Ten Most Influential Counterinsurgency Thinkers” in the United States by Foreign Policy magazine (2009). He has appeared on PBS Newshour, CNN, CNNi, BBC, MSNBC, CBS, National Public Radio and other national news programs. His sons – a Marine and an Army paratrooper, both captains – both served in Iraq. 

Elizabeth "Libby" Skinner
Faculty Associate - Research
Expertise: National security, international relations, counterterrorism, irregular warfare, nonproliferation
M.A., International Policy Studies and Russian Language, Monterey Institute of International Studies,
Elizabeth Skinner has been the editor of the Combating Terrorism Exchange (CTX), a peer-reviewed journal of counterterrorism, special operations, and irregular warfare, since 2012. Ms. Skinner joined the Naval Postgraduate School’s National Security Affairs department in 1997. As an assistant to several professors, she organized international conferences on US-Russia relations and nuclear nonproliferation and managed and edited several multi-author books on various topics in national security. She started a freelance editing business in 2006, specializing in international relations, civil-military relations, and biography. Prior to taking over CTX, Ms. Skinner spent a year as a researcher and think tank coordinator at NATO Allied Command Transformation in Norfolk, Virginia. She received her BA in Russian Studies from the University of California, Santa Cruz, where she was elected to the Phi Beta Kappa society, and her MA in International Policy Studies from the Monterey Institute of International Studies. PUBLICATIONS Thomas C. Bruneau, Lucia Dammert, and Elizabeth Skinner, Maras: Gang Violence and Security in Central America (University of Texas Press, 2011). Maj. Gen. Mark Barrett, Dick Bedford, Elizabeth Skinner, and Eva Vergles, “Assuring Access to the Global Commons,” report for NATO Supreme Allied Commander Transformation, Norfolk, Virginia, May 2011: Kenneth J. Hagan and Elizabeth Skinner, “Nuclear Strategy and Diplomacy,” in Alexander DeConde et al., eds., Encyclopedia of American Foreign Policy, 2nd ed. (Charles Scribner’s Sons, 2002), vol. 2, 595-622. William C. Potter, Emily Ewell, and Elizabeth Skinner, “Nuclear Security in Kazakhstan and Ukraine: An Interview with Vladimir Shkolnik and Nicolai Steinberg,” Nonproliferation Review 2, no. 1 (Fall 1994).    

Rebecca Smith
Faculty Associate - Research
Expertise: Export Control and Related Border Security; Regional Cooperation Agreements
Rebecca Smith is a Faculty Associate with the Department of Defense Analysis in the Graduate School of Operational and Information Sciences. Ms. Smith’s primary responsibilities include the planning and execution of a Border Security short course series in support of Department of State’s Export and Related Border Security Program. Prior to joining the Department of Defense Analysis, Ms. Smith served as a member of the Partnership for Peace Training and Education Center Program Office staff, leveraging the full capabilities of NPS to develop and execute a variety of programs in support of its prevention of conflict mission. Her professional background includes over 20 years in law, case management, research and application, and financial roles. Ms. Smith graduated magna cum laude from Columbia College with a Bachelor of Science degree in Business Administration and Management.

Bradley "BJ" Strawser
Associate Professor of Philosophy
Expertise: Ethics, Applied Ethics, Organizational Ethics, Just War Theory, Ethics of War and the Military Profession, Ethics of New and Emerging Technology
Ph.D., Philosophy, University of Connecticut, 2012
719 440 5670
I am an Associate Professor of Philosophy in the Defense Analysis Department at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, CA. I am also a Research Associate at Oxford University’s Institute for Ethics, Law, and Armed Conflict (ELAC) in Oxford, UK. Prior to my current positions, I was a Resident Research Fellow at the Stockdale Center for Ethical Leadership in Annapolis, MD. I previously taught philosophy at the University of Connecticut and the US Air Force Academy. My publication and research profile is intentionally broad and I aim for my work to have interdisciplinary relevance and application. I have published primarily in applied ethics and ethics more broadly, but also in political philosophy, metaphysics, Plato, and human rights, among other areas. Some of these publications have appeared in such peer-reviewed journals as Analysis, Ethical Theory and Moral Practice, Philosophia, Journal of Military Ethics, Public Affairs Quarterly, Journal of Human Rights, and Epoché. I’ve published multiple books with Oxford University Press, Palgrave Macmillan, Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, and Routledge. I have also written widely in popular media such as the New York Times, the Guardian, 3 Quarks Daily, War on the Rocks, among other outlets, and I have appeared on multiple local and national NPR affiliates, the BBC World Service, and other media outlets. PERSONAL WEBSITE   PUBLICATIONS  The Bounds of Defense: Killing, Moral Responsibility, and War (Oxford University Press, in production, March 2023). Outsourcing Duty: The Moral Exploitation of the American Soldier, with Michael Robillard (Oxford University Press, February 2022). Who Should Die? The Ethics of Killing in War, with Ryan Jenkins and Michael Robillard (Oxford University Press, 2017). Binary Bullets: The Ethics of Cyberwar, with Adam Henschke and Fritz Allhoff (Oxford University Press, 2016). Killing bin Laden: A Moral Analysis (Palgrave Macmillan, 2014). Responsibilities to Protect: Perspectives in Theory and Practice, with David Whetham (Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 2015). Military Ethics and Emerging Technologies, with Timothy J. Demy and George R. Lucas (Routledge, 2014). Opposing Perspectives on the Drone Debate (Palgrave Macmillan, 2014). Killing By Remote Control: The Ethics of an Unmanned Military (Oxford University Press, May 2012). "The Supererogatory Moral Risks of Military Service," Individualization of War Project, forthcoming from Oxford University Press. “Review Essay of In Defense of Gun Control by Hugh LaFollette,” with Bart Kennedy, Criminal Law and Philosophy, April 2021. “The Moral Exploitation of Soldiers,” with Michael Robillard, Public Affairs Quarterly 30, no. 2 (April 2016): 171 – 196. “Autonomous Machines, Moral Judgment, and Acting for the Right Reasons,” with Duncan Purves and Ryan Jenkins, Ethical Theory and Moral Practice 18, no. 4 (August 2015): 851-872. “Assessment, Proportionality, and Justice in War,” with Russell Muirhead, in Assessing War: The Challenge of Measuring Success and Failure, edited by Leo J. Blanken, Jason J. Lepore, and Hy Rothstein (Georgetown University Press, 2015). “Moral Cyber Weapons,” with Dorothy E. Denning, in The Ethics of Information Warfare, edited by Luciano Floridi and Mariarosaria Taddeo (Springer Philosophy & Engineering Technology Series, April 2014). “Active Cyber Defense: Applying Air Defense to the Cyber Domain,” with Dorothy E. Denning, in Cyber Analogies, edited by John Arquilla and Emily O. Goldman, Technical Report sponsored by United States Cyber Command, (Monterey, CA: Department of Defense Information Operations Center for Research, Naval Postgraduate School, 2014). “Defensive Interrogational Torture and Epistemic Limitations” Public Affairs Quarterly, Vol 27, no. 4 (October 2013): 311-340. “Revisionist Just War Theory and the Real World: A Cautiously Optimistic Proposal,” in Routledge Handbook of Ethics and War: Just War in the 21st Century, edited by Fritz Allhoff, Adam Henschke, & Nick Evans, (Routledge Press, 2013). Guest Editor: Journal of Military Ethics, Vol. 12, no. 1, 2013; Special Issue: “Cyberwar and Ethics.” “Walking the Tightrope of Just War,” Analysis 71 (July 2011): 533-544. “Moral Predators: The Duty to Employ Uninhabited Aerial Vehicles,” Journal of Military Ethics 9, no. 4 (December 2010): 342-368. “Rea’s Revenge and the Persistent Problem of Persistence for Realism,” Philosophia 39, no. 2 (May 2011): 375-391. “Those Frightening Men: A New Interpretation of Plato’s Battle of Gods and Giants,” Epoche 16, no. 2 (Spring 2012): 217 – 232. “The Normative Structure of Human Rights: a review of James Griffin’s On Human Rights,” (essay-length review article), Journal of Human Rights 10, no. 1, (February 2011): 112-119. “A Review of James Griffin’s On Human Rights,” (with Paul Bloomfield), Analysis 71, no. 1 (2011): 195 – 197.

John Tullius
Expertise: Intelligence, Terrorism
Ph.D., University of Oregon Political Science, 1997
Mr. John Tullius retired from the CIA in 2019 after serving three years as the Agency’s faculty Representative to NPS from 2016, when he intelligence-related classes on Covert Action, HUMINT, CPWMD and International Terrorism.  Prior to his retirement, John held a variety of positions, including managing China S&T analysis, working overseas as the Iranian nuclear expert, managing a group of big data analysts, and then managing OSE’s bureaus in Europe and the Middle East during the Arab Spring, emergence of foreign fighters, and ISIS. John is also a Senior Vice President for Grist Mill Exchange, a company that provides unique commercially available datasets to government agencies. He is also a senior advisor to Orbis Operations, where he has helped a friendly foreign government develop a large OSINT and analytic department. Retired CIA 2019 after serving in a variety of positions: CIA Faculty Rep to NPS from 2016-2019: taught intel classes and helped build programs to increase student access to cutting edge technologies. Open Source Enterprise Bureau Chief (2014-2016) while living in the region, responsible for all of Middle East and North Africa coverage, including ISIS, and the wars in Iraq and Syria. Open Source Enterprise Bureau Chief (2010-14), responsible for all of European coverage during the Arab Spring, Syria, and the emergence of the foreign fighter problem. Deputy Group Chief (2007-2010) of the Directorate of Intelligence's Analytic Methodology Group, which applied Big Data, Social Network Analysis, Geospatial, and other unique methods to solve complex problems. Iran Nuclear Expert (2005-2007). Living in Europe, worked with a U.S. Mission to collect and analyze Iranian nuclear developments. China proliferation and S&T analytic manager and senior analyst tracking China's emerging S&T prowess and defense industrial modernization. Military Experience: Infantry Officer, Oregon National Guard, 1990-1997   PUBLICATIONS Putin Likely Didn’t Plan on Publicly Available Information in his War in Ukraine, The Cipher Brief, March 15 2022 Implications of the Diffusion of Commercially Available Technologies on the Conduct of Sensitive Operations, Strategic Latency Unleashed: The Role of Technology in a Revisionist Global Order and the Implications for Special Operations Forces, Editors: Zachary S. Davis, Frank Gac, Christopher Rager, Phillip Reiner, and Jennifer Snow, 2021 Developing Analytic Capabilities, The Conduct of Intelligence in Democracies: Processes, Practices,Cultures, ed. Matei and Halladay, 2019

Tristan Volpe
Assistant Professor
Expertise: Technology and International Security, Coercion and Competition, Security Studies, IR Theory
Ph.D., Political Science, George Washington University, 2015
Tristan A. Volpe is an assistant professor in the Defense Analysis Department at the Naval Postgraduate School (NPS), where he studies how technology shapes coercion, cooperation, and competition among nations. He is also a nonresident fellow in the Nuclear Policy Program at the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace (CEIP). His most recent book, Leveraging Latency: How the Weak Compel the Strong with Nuclear Technology, was published with Oxford University Press in 2023. Prior to NPS, Dr. Volpe was a fellow at Carnegie (2015-2017) and Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (2013-2015). He received degrees in political science from the George Washington University (Ph.D.) and the University of California, Los Angeles (B.A.). PUBLICATIONS Book: Tristan A. Volpe, Leveraging Latency: How the Weak Compel the Strong with Nuclear Technology (Oxford University Press, 2023) Recent Articles: Nicholas L. Miller and Tristan A. Volpe, “The Rise of the Autocratic Nuclear Marketplace,” Journal of Strategic Studies, April 3, 2022, 1–39, ; Eric Brewer, Nicholas L. Miller, and Tristan Volpe, “Ukraine Won’t Ignite a Nuclear Scramble: Why Russia’s War Might Boost Nonproliferation,” Foreign Affairs, November 17, 2022,  PERSONAL WEBSITE

Camber Warren
Assistant Professor
Expertise: Qualitative Methods, International Security, Conflict Processes, Ethnic Politics, Statistical Methods, and Computational Modeling
Ph.D., Political Science, Duke University, 2008
Prior to arriving in Monterey, I served as a Postdoctoral Research Fellow with the International Conflict Research (ICR) group and the Center for Comparative and International Studies (CIS) at ETH Zurich, and at Princeton’s Niehaus Center for Globalization and Governance, after graduating with a Ph.D. in Political Science from Duke University, with concentrations in International Relations and Quantitative Methods. My research focuses on the study of international security, conflict processes, ethnic politics, statistical methods, and computational modeling. I am particularly interested in building new linkages between micro- and macro-level evidence in the study of armed conflict, both within and between states. My first book project, The Breakdown of Peace, examines the political economy of symbolic national attachments and the emergence of domestic mass violence. The central argument is that the political pursuit of violent fragmentation is less likely to succeed in countries with strong mass media structures, because such structures generate opportunities for political entrepreneurs to successfully deploy inclusive mobilizational appeals on a national scale. This framework thus endogenizes the emergence of intra-state security dilemmas, by describing the structural conditions under which divided group loyalties are more likely to emerge. It also overturns much of the conventional wisdom concerning the relationship between media and collective violence by demonstrating that mass communication networks, which have frequently been blamed for stoking inter-group animosities, can actually serve as powerful forces for domestic peace and stability. Concurrently, I am also developing independent and collaborative projects on alliance formation, nationalism, war severity, and the emergence of the modern state system.

Amelia Weld
Faculty Associate - Research
Expertise: Global ECCO, Strategic/Serious Games, Partnership Building
Amelia Weld is a Faculty Associate for Research with the GlobalECCO project funded by the Regional Defense Fellowship Program. She is an experienced strategic gaming facilitator, content creator, and alumni engagement specialist. Driven by a desire to help individuals make meaningful connections and valuable discoveries, she takes pride in supporting educational and training courses with enthusiasm. In addition to her twelve years working in the national defense and countering threats field, she holds the position of Contracting Officer Representative (COR) managing government contracts to meet the requirements of ongoing research and development, and the master’s degree program within the Defense Analysis department at NPS. She is an Alumni of Pepperdine University.

Lieutenant General (Retired) Eric Wendt
Professor of Practice
Expertise: Command and Leadership
M.A. National Security Affairs (Special Operations Curriculum), Naval Postgraduate School, 1995; Fellow, Naval Postgraduate School, 2005; Distinguished Alumnus, Naval Postgraduate School, 2018
Retired LTG Eric Wendt served over thirty-four years of active-duty commissioned service, including four and a half years in the light infantry, followed by 30 years as a Special Forces Green Beret. During his time on active duty he served as the Principal Military Assistant to the Secretary of Defense for Secretary Robert Gates and Secretary Leon Panetta; as the sole Deputy Commanding General (for both Operations and Support) for the 13,500 multinational troops from 17 countries in Regional Command-North in Afghanistan; as a Sub-Unified Theater Special Operations Commander (TSOC Commander), as the Commanding General of the JFK Special Warfare Center and School; as the Chief of Staff for the United States INDOPACOM; he also led an eight-country coalition as the three-star United States Security Coordinator for Israel and the Palestinian Authority; and served in multiple other assignments. LTG (Ret.) Wendt commanded multiple separate organizations for 13 years at tactical, operational and strategic levels while participating in numerous peacetime training and combat operations throughout the globe. LTG (Ret.) Wendt received his bachelor’s degree from the University of California at Santa Barbara, and received his master’s degree in 1995 from the Naval Postgraduate School (he was in the third class of what is today the Defense Analysis program). Ten years later, he successfully completed a yearlong academic fellowship in the Naval Postgraduate School’s Department of Defense Analysis. In 2018 he was recognized as a Distinguished Alumnus of the Naval Postgraduate School. LTG (Ret.) Wendt has published multiple articles, and today teaches Command and Leadership as a Professor of Practice at the Naval Postgraduate School in the Department of Defense Analysis. LTG (Ret.) Wendt brings significant guest speakers into his Command and Leadership courses who are strategic leaders from military, business, interagency, international and other fields, and he serves as the moderator when these guest speakers provide their “Fireside Chats” to the entire assembled Naval Postgraduate School student body. LTG (Ret.) Wendt speaks Arabic and Korean, and retired from active uniformed military service in 2021 as the Commander of the NATO Special Operations Headquarters. In addition to working today as a Professor of Practice at Naval Postgraduate School, LTG (Ret.) Wendt also currently serves as one of two DOD Senior Mentors in Korea. PUBLICATIONS Eric P. Wendt, “Strategic Counterinsurgency Modeling,” Senior Service College Fellowship Strategic Research Project, US Army War College (July 2005), pp. i-31 Eric P. Wendt, “Strategic Counterinsurgency Modeling,” Special Warfare, Vol 18, Issue 2, (September 2005): pp. 2-13 Eric P. Wendt, “The Green Beret Volckmann Program: Maximizing the Prevent Strategy,” Special Warfare, Vol 24, issue 3, (July 2011): pp. 10-16 Eric P. Wendt, “Comprehensive Defense: A Whole-of-Society Approach Via Irregular Forces,” Special Warfare, Vol 34, issue 2, (originally published June 2021, republished in DoD EarlyBird JAN 2022; republished again in The Drop Special Forces Association magazine in the summer 2023 issue).

Matthew Zefferman
Assistant Professor, Quantitative Social Scientist
Ph.D., Cultural Evolution and Human Behavioral Ecology, University of California, Davis, 2013
In my research I use mathematical models and ethnographic field research to understand human culture, cooperation, and conflict – especially in the contexts of political organization and war. I also have conducted ethnographic fieldwork with Turkana pastoralist warriors in northwest Kenya. They also have a high degree of combat exposure – with about half of adult male mortality due to combat in cattle raids. I am interested in how Turkana organization for war has influenced their susceptibility to combat stress and moral injury. I have interviewed hundreds of warriors about their combat experiences, moral beliefs about warfare, combat stress symptoms, and moral injury.  Before starting as an assistant professor at NPS I was a Donald R. Beall Defense Fellow in my department. Before that I was a postdoctoral research fellow at ASU’s Institute of Human Origins and a member of the Adaptation, Behavior, Culture and Society research group in the School of Human Evolution and Social Change. Before that, I was a postdoctoral researcher at the National Institute for Mathematical and Biological Synthesis and, before that, earned by PhD at the University of California, Davis in the Cultural Evolution and Human Behavioral Ecology Labs.  I am also a US Air Force veteran with six years of service as a civil engineering officer with deployments to the UAE and Afghanistan.