Publications - DoD Information Strategy Research Center
Ryan C. Maness
Publisher: Palgrave Macmillan, London
Energy, Cyber, and Maritime Policy as New Sources of Power.
Ryan C. Maness
Oxford University Press
Cyber Strategy The Evolving Character of Power and Coercion Brandon Valeriano, Benjamin Jensen, and Ryan C. Maness. Argues that cyber coercion complements rather than replaces traditional instruments of statecraft and power.
Ryan C. Maness
Oxford University Press
In 2011, the United States government declared a cyber attack as equal to an act of war, punishable with conventional military means. Cyber operations, cyber crime, and other forms of cyber activities directed by one state against another are now considered part of the normal relations range of combat and conflict, and the rising fear of cyber conflict has brought about a reorientation of military affairs. What is the reality of this threat? Is it actual or inflated, fear or fact-based?
Illuminating the Dark Arts of War: Terrorism, Sabotage, and Subversion in Homeland Security and the New Conflict
Illuminating the Dark Arts of War is a comprehensive survey of the threats posed by terrorism, sabotage and subversion to the security of the United States. By looking at how these threats connect and what their limitations are, the book calls into question the belief that the United States is now facing unprecedented and unmanageable threats to its security from the "new conflict" carried on by al Qaeda, other non-state actors, and states using the dark arts of war. The book contrasts the limited threats posed by terrorism, sabotage and subversion with the resilience and power of America's government and political system. The book should interest anyone concerned about America's security, particularly those involved in homeland security and those working to counter unconventional threats to the United States.
Edited by Hy Rothstein and John Arquilla
Georgetown University Press, 2012
The United States and its allies have been fighting the Taliban and al-Qaeda in Afghanistan for a decade in a war that either side could still win. While a gradual drawdown has begun, significant numbers of US combat troops will remain in Afghanistan until at least 2014, perhaps longer, depending on the situation on the ground and the outcome of the US presidential election in 2012. Given the realities of the Taliban's persistence and the desire of US policymakers—and the public—to find a way out, what can and should be the goals of the US and its allies in Afghanistan? Afghan Endgames brings together some of the finest minds in the fields of history, strategy, anthropology, ethics, and mass communications to provide a clear, balanced, and comprehensive assessment of the alternatives for restoring peace and stability to Afghanistan. Presenting a range of options—from immediate withdrawal of all coalition forces to the maintenance of an open-ended, but greatly reduced military presence—the contributors weigh the many costs, risks, and benefits of each alternative.
Bradley J. Strawser
Palgrave Macmillan, 2014
Does the lethal use of drones pose any new or difficult moral problems? Or is the controversy over these weapons merely a distraction from deeper questions regarding the justice of war and the United States' bellicose foreign policy? Opposing Perspectives on the Drone Debate pulls no punches in answering these questions as five scholars square off in a lively debate over the ethics of drones and their contentious use in a point-counterpoint debate. The contributing authors are some of the foremost thinkers in international affairs today, spanning the disciplines of philosophy, sociology, political science, and law. Topics debated range from the US's contested policy of so-called "targeted killing" in Pakistan's tribal regions to fears over the damaging effects such weaponry has on our democratic institutions to the more abstract moral questions raised by killing via remote control such as the duty to capture over kill.
By Hy S. Rothstein
USNI Press, 2006
A Naval Postgraduate School professor and former career Special Forces officer looks at why the U.S. military cannot conduct unconventional warfare despite a significant effort to create and maintain such a capability. In his examination of Operation Enduring Freedom, Hy Rothstein maintains that although the operation in Afghanistan appeared to have been a masterpiece of military creativity, the United States executed its impressive display of power in a totally conventional manner--despite repeated public statements by Secretary of Defense Rumsfeld that terrorists must be fought with unconventional capabilities. Arguing that the initial phase of the war was appropriately conventional given the conventional disposition of the enemy, the author suggests that once the Taliban fell the war became increasingly unconventional, yet the U.S. response became more conventional. This book presents an authoritative overview of the current American way of war and addresses the specific causes of the “conventionalization” of U.S. Special Forces, using the war in Afghanistan as a case study. Drawing a distinction between special operations and unconventional warfare (the use of Special Forces does not automatically make the fighting unconventional), Rothstein questions the ability of U.S. forces to effectively defeat irregular threats and suggests ways to regain lost unconventional warfare capacity.
Edited by Hy Rothstein and Barton Whaley
Artech House, 2013
It is said that deception among people in a civilized society is something to be loathed even though it seems to be part of human nature; but deception in war is a virtue. Properly designed and executed, stratagems reduce the horrific costs of war. This book is a comprehensive collection of classic articles on deception, hand-picked and expertly introduced by well-known experts on military deception. The purpose of this book is to set in motion a renaissance for using deception as an instrument of statecraft. The various sections are designed to cumulatively provide sufficient breadth and depth on the subject to satisfy both the novice as well as the expert. Packed with expert commentary, interesting background information, and original readings, this book provides the reader with sufficient knowledge to pursue General Eisenhower’s vision for the proper role of deception in support of the national interest.
IGI Global, 2014
In a technology-driven world, it is essential that enterprises develop reliable and rapid flows of knowledge to distribute evenly across organizations, time and place, and individuals in order to sustain a competitive advantage. However, most leaders and managers are unacquainted with effective knowledge flow practices. Harnessing Dynamic Knowledge Principles in the Technology-Driven World provides actionable principles of Knowledge Flow Theory to identify and solve problems for implementing these principles into practice. With emerging developments and widespread applicability, this book is a practical guide for scholars, business managers, and enterprise leaders and managers interested in understanding the dynamics of knowledge flows for competitive advantage in a technology-driven world.
Edited by Heather S. Gregg, Hy S. Rothstein and John Arquilla
Potomac Books, 2010
The conflict in Iraq is characterized by three faces of war: interstate conflict, civil war, and insurgency. The Coalition’s invasion of Iraq in March 2003 began as an interstate war. No sooner had Saddam Hussein been successfully deposed, however, than U.S.-led forces faced a lethal insurgency. After Sunni al Qaeda in Iraq bombed the Shia al-Askari Shrine in 2006, the burgeoning conflict took on the additional element of civil war with sectarian violence between the Sunni and the Shia. The most effective strategies in a war as complicated as the three-level conflict in Iraq are intertwined and complementary, according to the editors of this volume. For example, the “surge” in U.S. troops in 2007 went beyond an increase in manpower; the mission had changed, giving priority to public security. This new direction also simultaneously addressed the insurgency as well as the civil war by forging new, trusting relationships between Americans and Iraqis and between Sunni and Shia. This book has broad implications for future decisions about war and peace in the twenty-first century.
Heather Selma Gregg
Potomac Books, 2014
In the wake of 9/11, policy analysts, journalists, and academics have tried to make sense of the rise of militant Islam, particularly its role as a motivating and legitimating force for violence against the United States. The general perception is that Islam is more violence-prone than other religions and that scripture and beliefs within the faith, such as the doctrines of jihad and martyrdom, demonstrate the inherently violent nature of Islam. Here, however, Heather Selma Gregg draws comparisons across religious traditions to investigate common causes of religious violence. The author sets side-by-side examples of current and historic Islamic violence with similar acts by Christian, Jewish, Buddhist, and Hindu adherents. Based on her findings, Gregg challenges the assumption that religious violence stems from a faith’s scriptures. Instead, Gregg argues that religious violence is the result of interpretations of a religion’s beliefs and scriptures. Interpretations calling for violence in the name of a faith are the product of individuals, but it is important to understand the conditions under which these violent interpretations of a religion occur. These conditions must be considered by identifying who is interpreting the religion and by what authority; the social, political, and economic circumstances surrounding these violent interpretations; and the believability of these interpretations by members of religious communities.
Edited by Emily O. Goldman and John Arquilla
Calhoun/Dudley Knox Library-NPS, 2014
This anthology of cyber analogies will resonate with readers whose duties call for them to set strategies to protect the virtual domain and determine the policies that govern it. Our belief it that learning is most effective when concepts under consideration can be aligned with already-existing understanding or knowledge. Cyber issues are inherently tough to explain in layman’s terms. The future is always open and undetermined, and the numbers of actors and the complexity of their relations are too great to give definitive guidance about future developments. In this report, historical analogies, carefully developed and properly applied, help indicate a direction for action by reducing complexity and making the future at least cognately manageable.
Edited by Michael Freeman and Hy Rothstein
NPS Publications, 2011
In 2008, Salinas, California experienced 25 homicides, 93% of them attributed to gang activity. In 2009, they reached an all time high of 29 homicides, 100% of those were attributed to gang activity. The homicide rate per capita at that time mirrored the rates of much larger cities, such as Chicago and Boston. However, Salinas looks like more towns in America than those larger cities do, having a population of 146,000 and being economically driven by farming and agriculture; raising fears in surrounding cities that if gangs can take over here, they can take over anywhere. Gang violence had made a huge impact on this small farming town in America. The book Gangs & Guerrillas is a result of this unique collaboration between agencies. As discussions progressed it became apparent that many theories in counterinsurgency and counterterrorism operations were based on human behavior and effective action plans given limited resources. As a result, experts from the Defense Analysis department at NPS were asked to write a few pages on their theories, models and ideas based on their own disciplines of political science, sociology, anthropology, communications, and more. The result is this collection of 3 to 4 page essays that we hope will be useful to small towns which, like Salinas, are plagued by urban insurgencies.
Sean F. Everton
Cambridge University Press, 2013
This is the first book in which counterinsurgency theory and social network analysis are coupled. Disrupting Dark Networks focuses on how social network analysis can be used to craft strategies to track, destabilize, and disrupt covert and illegal networks. The book begins with an overview of the key terms and assumptions of social network analysis and various counterinsurgency strategies. The next several chapters introduce readers to algorithms and metrics commonly used by social network analysts. They provide worked examples from four different social network analysis software packages (UCINET, NetDraw, Pajek, and ORA) using standard network data sets as well as data from an actual terrorist network that serves as a running example throughout the book. The book concludes by considering the ethics of and various ways that social network analysis can inform counterinsurgency strategizing. By contextualizing these methods in a larger counterinsurgency framework, this book offers scholars and analysts an array of approaches for disrupting dark networks.
Leo J. Blanken
University of Chicago Press, 2012
The nineteenth century marked the high point of imperialism, when tsarist Russia expanded to the Pacific and the sun was said never to set on the British Empire. Imperialism remains a perennial issue in international relations today, and nowhere is this more evident than in the intensifying competition for global resources. Leo J. Blanken explains imperialism through an analysis of the institutions of both the expanding state and its targets of conquest. While democratic states favoring free trade generally resort to imperialism only to preempt aggressive rivals—or when they have reason to believe another state’s political institutions will not hold up when making bargains—authoritarian states tend toward imperialism because they don’t stand to benefit from free trade. The result is three distinct strategies toward imperialism: actors fighting over territory, actors peaceably dividing territory among themselves, and actors refraining from seizing territory altogether. Blanken examines these dynamics through three case studies: the scramble for Africa, the unequal treaties imposed on Qing Dynasty China, and the evolution of Britain’s imperial policy in India. By separating out the different types of imperialism, Blanken provides insight into its sources, as well as the potential implications of increased competition in the current international arena.
Edited by Mark T. Berger and Douglas A Borer
The rise and fall of the Cold War coincided with the universalization and consolidation of the modern nation-state as the key unit of the wider international system. A key characteristic of the post-Cold War era, in which the US has emerged as the sole superpower, is the growing number of collapsing or collapsed states. A growing number of states are, or have become, mired in conflict or civil war, the antecedents of which are often to be found in the late-colonial and Cold War era. At the same time, US foreign policy (and the actions of other organizations such as the United Nations) may well be compounding state failure in the context of the post-9/11 Global War on Terror (GWOT) or what is also increasingly referred to as the ‘Long War’. The Long War is often represented as a ‘new’ era in warfare and geopolitics. This book acknowledges that the Long War is new in important respects, but it also emphasizes that the Long War bears many similarities to the Cold War. A key similarity is the way in which insurgency and counterinsurgency were and continue to be seen primarily in the context of inter-state rivalry in which the critical local or regional dynamics of revolution and counter-revolution are marginalized or neglected. In this context American policy-makers and their allies have again erroneously applied a ‘grand strategy’ that suits the imperatives of conventional military and geo-political thinking rather than engaging with what are a much more variegated array of problems facing the changing global order. This book provides a collection of well-integrated studies that shed light on the history and future of insurgency, counterinsurgency and collapsing states in the context of the Long War. This book was previously published as a special issue of Third World Quarterly.
Chapters in Books
Arquilla, J., "Information Wars," in the Encyclopedia of Globalization and Security, (Praeger, 2009)
Arquilla, J., "Conflict, Security and Computer Ethics," in Luciano Floridi, ed., The Cambridge Handbook of Information and Computer Ethics, (Cambridge University Press, 2010).
Berger, M., "The End of Empire and the Cold War" in Mark Beeson, ed., Contemporary Southeast Asia: Regional Dynamics, National Differences, (Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan, second revised edition, 2009)
Denning, D. E., "Terror's Web: How the Internet is Transforming Terrorism," in Y. Jewks and M. Yar, ed., Handbook on Internet Crime, (Willan Publishing, 2010).
Denning, D.E., "The Internet and the Iraq Conflict," in Heather Gregg, Hy Rothstein, and John Arquilla, ed., The Three Circles of War: Understanding the Dynamics of Conflict in Iraq, (Potomac Books, Inc, 2010).
Fox, W. P., "System Modeling of US Efforts as Applied to the War on Terrorism in Iraq and Iraq's Infrastructure Resiliency: the Indicators of Force Multipliers (INFORM) Model," in Heather Gregg, Hy Rothstein, and John Arquilla, ed., The Three Circles of War: Understanding the Dynamics of Conflict in Iraq, (Potomac Books, Inc, 2010).
Freeman, M., "Insurgent and Terrorist Finances in Iraq," in Heather Gregg, Hy Rothstein, and John Arquilla, ed., The Three Circles of War: Understanding the Dynamics of Conflict in Iraq, (Potomac Books, Inc, 2010).
Gregg, H., "U.S. Relations with Islamic Organizations in the Middle East," in Robert E. Looney, ed., A Handbook of US-Middle East Relations, (New York: Routledge, 2009).
M. N. Kamel and M. G. Ceruti, “Knowledge Discovery in Heterogeneous Environments,” in Heterogeneous Information Exchange and Organizational Hubs, H. Bestougeff and B. Thuraisingham, Eds., Kluwer Academic Publishers, 2001, pp. 181–204
Nissen, M.E. “Harnessing Knowledge Power for Competitive Advantage,” in: M. Chilton and J. Bloodgood (Eds.), Knowledge Management for Competitive Advantage: Issues and Potential Solutions Hershey, PA: IGI Global (2013).
Roberts, N.C., "Web-based, Open-source Platforms for Collaboration," in J. Svara and J. Denhardt, eds., The Connected Community: Local Governments as Partners in Citizen Engagement and Community Building, (Phoenix: Alliance for Innovation, 2010).
Robinson, G., "Identity Politics and the War in Iraq," in Heather Gregg, Hy Rothstein, and John Arquilla, ed., The Three Circles of War: Understanding the Dynamics of Conflict in Iraq, (Potomac Books, Inc, 2010).
Sepp, K., "Special Operations," in Thomas Rid and Thomas Keaney, ed., Understanding Counterinsurgency: Doctrine, Operations, and Challenges, (Routledge, 2010).
Articles in Conference Proceedings
Appling, Briscoe, Carpenter, McCook, Scott, Allen, Buettner, and Oros, "Social Media for Situational Awareness: Joint-Interagency Field Experimentation," in Humanitarian Technology: Science, Systems, and Global Impact 2015, HumTech2015. Boston, MA, 12-14 May 2015.
Alt, Jonathan, Stephen Lieberman, and Sean Everton, "Violent Extremist Network Representation and Attack the Network Course of Action Analysis in Social Simulation," in 2010 Spring Simulation Multiconference, Military Modeling and Simulation Symposium. Orlando, FL.
Azam, M., Ghoshal, S., Deb, S., Pattitpatti, K., Haste, D., Mandal, S. and Kleinman, D., "Integrated Diagnostics and Time to Maintenance for Complex Engineering Systems," Proceedings IEEE Aerospace Conference, Big Sky, MT (2014). This paper was also presented at the conference by D. Kleinman.
Fox, W. P., "The Battle of Trafalgar: An Example of Modeling with Technology," Proceeding of the 20thICTCM, March 2009, pages 93-97.
Freeman, J., Gallup, S.P., and MacKinnon, D.J., "Human Interoperability: Initial Theory and Research," Proceedings of the Human Behavior-Computational Intelligence Modeling Conference, Oak Ridge, TN, 23-24 June 2009.
Gallup, S. P., MacKinnon, D. J., Zhao, Y. Robey, J. Odell, "Facilitating Decision Making, Re-use and Collaboration: A Knowledge Management Approach for System Self-Awareness," C. International Joint Conference on Knowledge Discovery, Knowledge Engineering, and Knowledge Management (IC3K), Madeira, Portugal, 6-8 October, 2009.
Hutchins, S., MacKinnon, D., Freeman, J., Gallup, S., "Maritime Domain Awareness: Assessment of Current Status," 14th International Command and Control Research & Technology Symposium (ICCRTS), June 2009.
Hutchins, S. G., Gallup, S. P., MacKinnon, D., Miller, S., Freeman, J., Grande, D., Dunaway, D., and Poeltler, B., "Enhancing Maritime Domain Awareness," 13th International Command and Control Research & Technology Symposium (ICCRTS), Bellevue, Washington, (17-19 June 2008).
Hutchins, S, Gallup, S., MacKinnon, D., Miller, S., and Freeman J., "Maritime Domain Awareness: Process Reengineering," F76th MORS Symposium, June 2008.
Susan G Hutchins, William G Kemple, Ron Adamo, and Dan Boger, "Knowledge management and collaboration in an effects-based operations environment", 2002 Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium.
Susan G Hutchins, William G Kemple, Ron Adamo, Dan Boger, Brian W Nelson, and Heather L Penta, "Collaboration Tool Suites Developed to Support Joint Command and Control Planning and Decisionmaking", 2002 Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium.
William G. Kemple , Susan G. Hutchins, Ron Adamo , Dan Boger, Jeffrey J. Crowson, "Effects-Based Planning: An Empirical Examination of the Process", 2002 Command and Control Research and Technology Symposium.
MacKinnon, Douglas J. with Levitt, R. E., Ramsey, M., and Nissen, M. E., "Hypothesis Testing of Edge Organizations: Empirically Calibrating an Organizational Model for Experimentation," 12th ICCRTS conference proceedings, Newport, RI (2007).
MacKinnon, Douglas J., Ramsey, M. and Levitt, R., "A Semantic Data Model for Simulating Information Flow in Edge Organizations," 11th ICCRTS conference proceedings, London, U.K. (September, 2006).
MacKinnon, Douglas J., Levitt, Raymond E. and Nissen, Mark E., "Modeling Skill Growth and Decay in Edge Organizations: Near-Optimizing Knowledge & Power Flows (Phase Two)," CCRTS conference proceedings, San Diego, CA (June 2006).
MacKinnon, Douglas J., Levitt, Raymond E. and Nissen, Mark E., "Knowledge as Inventory: Near-Optimizing Knowledge and Power Flows in Edge Organizations (Phase One)," ICCRTS conference proceedings, McLean, VA (2005).
Zhang, D., Zeng, S., Huang, C-N, Fan, L., Yu, X., Dang, Y., Larson, C., Denning, D., Roberts, N., Chen, H., "Developing a Dark Web Collection and Infrastructure for Computational and Social Sciences," Proceedings of the 2010 IEEE International Conference on Intelligence and Security Informatics, ISI 2010.
Zhao, Y., Gallup, S.P., and MacKinnon, D.J., "Semantic and Social Networks Comparison for the Haiti Eathquake Relief Operations from APAN Data Sources Using Lexical Link Analysis (LLA)" In Proceedings of the 17th ICCRTS, International Command and Control, Research and Technology Symposium (ICCRTS), George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, 20 June 2012.
Zhao, Y., Gallup, S.P., and MacKinnon, D.J., "Lexical Link Analysis for the Haiti Earthquake Relief Operation Using Open Data Source," In Proceedings of the 6th ICCRTS, International Command and Control, Research and Technology Symposium (ICCRTS), Québec City, Canada, 21 June 2011.
Zhao, Y., Gallup, S. P., MacKinnon, D. J., "A Web Service Implementation for Large-scale Automation, Visualization, and Real-time Program-Awareness," 8th Annual Acquisition Research Symposium, Monterey, California, May 11-12, 2011.
Major Journal Articles
Arquilla, J., "Realities of War," Third World Quarterly, Vol. 30, No. 1 (2009).
Blanken, L., and Jason Lepore, "'Slowing Down to Keep the Lead in Military Technology," Defense and Peace Economics (in press)
Borer, D., Everton, S., and Nayve, M., "Global Development and Human (In)security: Understanding the Rise of the Rajah Solaiman Movement and Balik Islam in the Philippines." Third World Quarterly, Vol 30, No 1 (2009)
Denning, D. E., "Barriers to Entry: Are They Lower for Cyber Warfare?" IO Journal, (April 2009), pp. 6-10.
Denning, D. E., "Comments on Responsibility of and Trust in ISPs," Knowledge, Technology & Policy, Vol. 23, No. 3 (2010), pp. 399-401.
Everton, S. F., "Network Topography, Key Players and Terrorist Networks," Connections, (2011).
Fox, W. P., "Discrete Combat Models: Investigating the Solutions to Discrete Forms of Lanchester's Combat Models," International Journal of Operations Research and Information Systems (IJORIS), 1(1), (Jan-Mar 2010), pp 16-34.
Freeman, M., David Tucker, and Steffen Merten, "Pathways to Terror: Finding Patterns Prior to an Attack," Journal of Policing, Intelligence and Counter Terrorism, Vol. 5, No. 1, (2010).
Freeman, M., "The Sources of Terrorist Financing: Theory and Typology," Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, Vol. 34, No. 6, (June 2011).
Freeman, M., "The Headless Horseman: A Theoretical and Strategic Assessment of Leadership Targeting," Journal of Conflict Studies, Vol. 30, (2010).
Gregg, H., "Beyond Population Engagement: Understanding the Goals of Counterinsurgency," Parameters, Vol. 39, No. 3, (2009).
Gregg, H., "Fighting Cosmic Warriors: Lessons from the First Seven Years of the Global War on Terror," Studies in Conflict and Terrorism, Vol. 32, No. 3, (2009).
Gregg, H., "Fighting the Jihad of the Pen: Countering Al Qaeda's Ideology," Terrorism and Political Violence, Vol. 22, No. 2, 2010, pp. 294-314.
Jones, Carl R., contributing editor, "Toward a Science of Command, Control, and Communications", Vol. 156: Progress in Astronautics and Aeronautics, 1993.
Massey, D. and Denning, D. E., "Securing the Domain Name System," guest editor's introduction to special issue on DNS, IEEE Security & Privacy, Vol. 7, No. 5, (September/October 2009), pp. 11-13.
M. Nissen, M. Kamel, and K. Sengupta, “Integrated Analysis and Design of Knowledge Systems and Processes,” Information Resources Management Journal, Vol. 13, No. 1, Jan–March 2000, pp. 24–43.
Roberts, N.C., "Entrepreneurship in Peace Operations," Journal of Civic Society," 6(01), (2010), pp. 1-21.
Roberts, N.C., "Response to Commentaries of Spanning 'Bleeding Boundaries," Public Administration Review, (2010).
Roberts, N.C., "Spanning 'Bleeding' Boundaries: Humanitarianism, NGOs, and the Civilian-Military Nexus in the Post-Cold War Era," Public Administration Review. 70(2), (2010), pp. 212-222.
Roberts, N.C., "Tracking and Disrupting Dark Networks: Challenges of Data Collection and Analysis," Information Systems Frontiers (in press)
Roberts, N.C. and Everton, S., "Strategies for Combating Dark Networks," Journal of Social Structure (in press).
Zhao, Y., MacKinnon, D.J, and Gallup, S.P., "System Self-awareness and Related Methods for Improving the Use and Understanding of Data within DoD," American Society for Data Quality (ASQ), Volume 13, Issue 4, pp 19-31, Sep 2011.