Thomas H. Johnson - Department of National Security Affairs
null Thomas H. Johnson
Glasgow Hall, Room 359
Research Associate ProfessorExpertise: Afghanistan, Central Asia, Insurgency, Counterinsurgency
Thomas H. Johnson is a Research Professor of the National Security Affairs Department at the Naval Postgraduate School (Monterey, California) as well the Director of the Program for Culture & Conflict Studies (CCS). Under his direction, the CCS program coordinates research activities on the peoples, societies, politics and conflicts of Central and South Asia.
At NPS, Professor Johnson teaches courses on Afghanistan, Central and South Asian crises, and historical insurgencies and counterinsurgencies. Johnson has taught at the University of Southern California and the Foreign Service Institute, and frequently lectures at Service Academies. Before joining the faculty of the Naval Postgraduate School, he served on the faculty of George Mason University.
For three decades, Professor Johnson has conducted research and written on Afghanistan and South Asia. He is a member of the Afghanistan Editorial Board of the National Security Archive. His publications have appeared in the American Political Science Review, International Security, Foreign Policy, Military Review, Journal of Politics, Orbis: A Journal of World Affairs, Central Asian Survey, China and Eurasian Forum Quarterly, Small Wars and Insurgencies, Strategic Insights, The Brown Journal of World Affairs, Strategic Review, Journal of Asian Security and International Affairs, Politikon: South African Journal of Political Science, Journal of Modern African Studies as well as numerous scholarly edited volumes and texts. His commentaries have appeared in numerous media outlets to recently include the Atlantic Monthly, Washington Post, Wall Street Journal, Newsweek, Christian Science Monitor, Newsday, Baltimore Sun, Chicago Tribune, San Francisco Chronicle, the Telegraph, Toronto Star, Folha de S. Paulo and on PBS NewsHour, CNN’s Christina Amanpour Show, Al Jazeera America Inside Story with Ray Suarez, TVO’s Agenda, BBC Channel One and Newsday, National Public Radio’s All Things Considered, NPR’s Morning Edition and All Points Consider with Tom Ashbrook, Press TV, CNN Radio, and Voice of America, RFE/Radio Liberty, The Diplomat, numerous Afghan media sources and a variety of other media sources.
In 2008-9 he served as the Senior Political and Counterinsurgency Advisor to the Commander (General Jon Vance) of Canadian Afghan Task Force stationed in Kandahar, Afghanistan.
His edited volume on COIN, Culture and Conflict was published by Stanford University Press in 2014.
He recently completed a rewrite and significant update and expansion of the seminal book entitled The Historical Dictionary of Afghanistan originally authored by the late Professor Ludwig Adamec. (Thomas H. Johnson and Ludwig Adamic, The Historical Dictionary of Afghanistan, (Rowman & Littlefield,, May 2021).
Military History of Insurgency
Military History of Counter-Insurgency
Counter-Insurgency in Afghanistan
Introduction to Central Asia
For curriculum vitae (CV), please click here.
“How America Lost Afghanistan,” with Larry P. Goodson, Newlinesmag.com, August 18, 2021
“Political Legitimacy: Why we are failing in Afghanistan,” with Larry P. Goodson, The Strategy Bridge, July 2221, https://thestrategybridge.org/the-bridge/2021/political-legitimacy-why-we-are-failing-in-afghanistan. Republished.
The Historical Dictionary of Afghanistan with the late Professor Ludwig Adamic, (Rowman & Littlefield, May 2021). https://rowman.com/ISBN/9781538149294/Historical-Dictionary-of-Afghanistan-Fifth-Edition
“The 2019 Afghan Presidential Election: An Assessment of Problematic Processes and Results,” Afghanistan Journal, spring issue, vol. 4 no. 1, April 2021, pp. 19-46. https://www.euppublishing.com/doi/abs/10.3366/afg.2021.0062
“The Afghan Taliban and the “Peace Negotiations,” An Analysis of Narratives, Stories and Messages: Are the Taliban ‘De-radicalising?,’” in Omar Ashour, (ed.), Bullets to Ballots: Transformations from Armed to Unarmed Activism, (Oxford University Press and Edinburgh University Press, May 2021). Book also published in Arabic by Arab Centre, Doha, Qatar.
“Chaos, Confusion and Fraud: An Examination of Afghanistan’s 2018 Wolesi Jirga Elections,” Journal of Asian Security and International Affairs, 7(1) pp. 57–100, April 2020. https://calhoun.nps.edu/handle/10945/64601
“Struggling to Overcome the Afghan Taliban’s Master Narratives,” with Mathew C. DuPee, in Andrea J. Dew, Marc A Genest, S.C.M. Paine (eds.) From Quills to Tweets: How America Communicates About War and Revolution, (Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 2019), pp.228-246.
“The myth of Afghan electoral democracy: the irregularities of the 2014 presidential election,” Small Wars & Insurgencies, 29:5-6, 2018 1006-1039. Published in Dari at (https://aiss.af/assets/aiss_publication/The_Myth_of_Afghan_Electoral_Democracy_The_Irregularities_of_the_2014_Presidential_Election(Farsi).pdf .)
“Political Legitimacy: Why we are failing in Afghanistan,” with Larry P. Goodson, The Strategy Bridge, December 13, 2018, https://thestrategybridge.org/the-bridge/2018/12/13/political-legitimacy-why-we-are-failing-in-afghanistan
“The Illusion of Afghanistan’s Electoral Representative Democracy: The Cases of Afghan Presidential and National Legislative Elections,” Small Wars & Insurgencies, 29:1, 2018, 1-37. https://doi.org/10.1080/09592318.2018.1404771
Taliban Narratives: The Use and Power of Stories in the Afghanistan Conflict, 380 pages, (Oxford University Press and Hurst Publishing, January 2018. Published in Dari by the Afghanistan Institute of Strategic Studies (May, 2019), روایت های طالبان ؛ نقش اطلاع رسانی و فرآورده های تبلیغی در جنگ افغانستان . http://www.hurstpublishers.com/book/taliban-narratives/
“La Diplomacia Estadounidense Tras El 11 De Sepiembre,” (US diplomacy after the September 11), Desperta Ferro: Contemporánea, ISSN 2340-8820, Nº. 14, 2016 (Ejemplar dedicado a: Afganistán, 2001), pp. 6-13.
“U.S. Policy and Strategy Toward Afghanistan after 2014,” with Larry Goodson, (US Army War College, Strategic Studies Institute, 2014). https://press.armywarcollege.edu/monographs/479/
“Introduction,” pp. 1-16 in Culture, Conflict and Counterinsurgency, with Barry Zellen, (Stanford University Press, 2014).
“Religious Figures, Insurgency, and Jihad in Southern Afghanistan,” pp. 120-147 in Culture, Conflict and Counterinsurgency, with Barry Zellen, (Stanford University Press, 2014).
“Conclusion,” pp.241-255 in Culture, Conflict and Counterinsurgency, with Barry Zellen, (Stanford University Press, 2014).
“The Taliban Narrative: Understanding the Group’s Messages, Actions and Clues to Their Endgame,” with Kevin L. Steele, in Steven R Corman (ed.), Narrating the Exit from Afghanistan, (Tempe, Arizona: Center for Strategic Communication, 2013), pp.71-98.
“Taliban Adaptations and Innovations,” Small Wars and Insurgencies, Vol. 24, No. 1, January 2013, pp. 3-27. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09592318.2013.740228
Taliban: The Unknown Enemy, by James Fergusson. (Cambridge, MA: Da Capo Press, 2010. Pp. 416. $27.95.) The Historian, Vol. 74, No. 4, Winter, 2012, pp.815-16. (Book Review).
“Stuck in the Big Muddy: A Review Article,” Middle East Journal, Vol. 66, No.4 Autumn 2012. Pp. 723-733.
“Analyzing the New Taliban Code of Conduct (Layeha): An Assessment of Changing Perspectives and Strategies of the Afghan Taliban,” with Matthew DuPee, Central Asian Survey Vol. 31, No. 1, March 2012, 77–91. https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/45464654.pdf
“The Fog of Peace,” with M. Chris Mason, Foreign Policy, January 18, 2012, http://afpak.foreignpolicy.com/posts/2012/01/18/the_fog_of_peace
“Déjà Vu: Afghanistan Prepares for Another Withdrawal,” Jane’s Intelligence Review, October 2011, pp. 8-13. https://calhoun.nps.edu/handle/10945/46490
“Parallels with the Past: How the Soviets Lost in Afghanistan, How the Americans are Losing,” with Larry Goodson, Orbis: A Journal of World Affairs, Vol. 55, No. 4, 2011, Fall, pp. 577-599. (Awarded the 2011 winner of the Colonel John J. Madigan III, U.S. Army War College Staff and Faculty Published Writing competition.) https://calhoun.nps.edu/handle/10945/41811
“Parallels with the Past: How the Soviets Lost in Afghanistan, How the Americans are Losing,” with Larry Goodson, Foreign Policy Research Institute E-Notes, (Philadelphia: FPRI), April 2011.
“Transition to nowhere: The limits of ‘Afghanization’,” with Matthew DuPee, Foreign Policy, March 22, 2011, http://afpak.foreignpolicy.com/posts/2011/03/22/transition_to_nowhere_the_limits_of_afghanization
“Analyzing Taliban Taranas (Chants): An Effective Afghan Propaganda Artifact,” with Ahwad Waheed, Small Wars and Insurgencies, Vol. 22, No. 1, March 2011, pp. 3-31. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09592318.2011.546572
“Afghanistan is Not Ready for Democracy,” with W. Chris Mason, in Noah Berlatsky (ed.), Afghanistan: Opposing Views, (London: Greenhaven Press, 2010), pp. 128-133.
“Down the AfPak Rabbit Hole,” with W. Chris Mason, Foreign Policy, March 1, 2010, http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2010/03/01/down_the_afpak_rabbit_hole .
Who Speaks for Islam?: Muslim Grassroots Leaders and Popular Preachers in South Asia, with Mumtaz Ahmad and Dietrich Reetz, NBR Special Report #22, (Seattle, Washington: The National Bureau of Asian Research, February 2010). https://www.nbr.org/publication/who-speaks-for-islam-muslim-grassroots-leaders-and-popular-preachers-in-south-asia/
“Religious Figures, Insurgency, and Jihad in Southern Afghanistan,” in Who Speaks for Islam?: Muslim Grassroots Leaders and Popular Preachers in South Asia, NBR Special Report #22, (Seattle, Washington: The National Bureau of Asian Research, February 2010), pp. 41- 65.
“All Counterinsurgency is Local,” with W. Chris Mason in Helen E. Purkitt, (ed.) World Politics 09/10, (New York, McGraw-Hill, 2010).
“Obama’s Indecent Interval,” with W. Chris Mason, Foreign Policy, December 10, 2009, http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2009/12/10/sorry_obama_afghanistans_your_vietnam .
“Refighting the Last War: Afghanistan and the Vietnam Template,” with W. Chris Mason, Military Review, November-December 2009, pp. 2-14. https://www.armyupress.army.mil/Portals/7/military-review/Archives/English/MilitaryReview_20091231_art001.pdf
“Afghanistan’s Post-Taliban Transition: State Building after War,” in Daniel Brumberg and Dina Shehata (eds.), Conflict, Identity, and Reform in the Muslim World: Challenges for U. S. Engagement, (Washington. DC: United States Institute for Peace, 2009), pp. 173-197.
Commentary on Mia Bloom, Dying to kill: the allure of suicide terror (New York: Columbia University Press, 2005),” Critical Studies on Terrorism, Vol. 2, No. 2, August 2009, 349–352.
“Democracy in Afghanistan is Wishful Thinking,” with W. Chris Mason, Christian Science Monitor, August 20, 2009, http://www.csmonitor.com/2009/0820/p09s01-coop.html.
“Saigon 2009: Afghanistan is today’s Vietnam,” with W. Chris Mason, Foreign Policy, August 20, http://www.foreignpolicy.com/articles/2009/08/20/saigon_2009.
“Counterinsurgency In Afghanistan: Snatching Victory from the Jaws of Defeat,” in Christopher M. Schnaubelt (ed.), Operationalizing a Comprehensive Approach in Semi-Permissive Environments: NDC Forum Paper, (Rome: NATO Defense College Research Division, June 2009), pp. 186-205. https://css.ethz.ch/en/services/digital-library/publications/publication.html/102399
“Misunderstanding Pakistan's Federally Administered Tribal Areas,” with W. Chris Mason, International Security, Winter 2008/2009, Vol. 33, pp. 180-189. https://calhoun.nps.edu/handle/10945/50888
“Winning the War in Afghanistan: Echoes of Northern Ireland and the IRA?,” with Richard English, The Brown Journal of World Affairs, Vol XV, Issue I (Fall/Winter 2008), pp. 273-285. https://calhoun.nps.edu/handle/10945/38385
“All Counterinsurgency is Local,” with Chris Mason, The Atlantic Monthly, October 2008. (Reprinted in Helen E. Purkitt (ed.), World Politics 09/10, (Boston: McGraw Hill, 2009), pp. 153-154.
“Rethinking Afghanistan: echoes of Ulster and the IRA?,” with Richard English, Policy Options, June 2008. https://calhoun.nps.edu/handle/10945/43680
“No Sign until the Burst of Fire: Understanding the Pakistan - Afghanistan Frontier,” with W. Chris Mason, International Security, Spring 2008, Vol. 32, No. 4, pp. 41-77. https://calhoun.nps.edu/handle/10945/38801
Strategic Culture and Violent Non-State Actors, with James Smith and Jerry Mark Long, INSS Occasional Paper No. 64, USAF Institute for National Security Studies, USAF Academy, Colorado, February 2008. https://www.usafa.edu/app/uploads/OCP64_StrategicCulture.pdf
“On the Edge of the Big Muddy: The Taliban Resurgence in Afghanistan,” China and Eurasian Forum Quarterly, Volume 5, No. 2 (2007), pp. 93-129. https://calhoun.nps.edu/handle/10945/30470
“The Taliban Insurgency and an Analysis of Shabnamah (Night Letters),” Small Wars and Insurgencies, Vol. 18, No. 3, September 2007, pp. 317-344. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/09592310701674176
“Terrorism, Insurgency and Afghanistan,” with W. Chris Mason, in James JF Forrest (ed.) Counter Terrorism in the 21st Century, Volume III: Lessons Learned From the Fight Against Terrorism, (New York, Praeger, 2007), pp. 453-478.
“Afghanistan’s Post-Taliban Transition: State Building after War,” in Jessica Piombo and Karen Guttieri (eds.) Interim Governments (Washington, DC: US Institute of Peace Press, 2007). https://calhoun.nps.edu/handle/10945/38800
“Financing Afghan Terrorism: Thugs, Drugs, and Creative Movements of Money,” in Harold A. Trinkunas and Jeanne Giraldo (eds.) Terrorism Financing and State Responses: A Comparative Perspective, (Palo Alto, CA: Stanford University Press, 2007), pp. 93-114. https://www.sup.org/books/title/?id=10507
“Understanding the Taliban and Insurgency in Afghanistan,” with W. Chris Mason, Orbis: A Journal of World Affairs, Vol. 51, No. 1, 2007, pp. 71-89. https://www.fpri.org/article/2007/01/understanding-taliban-insurgency-afghanistan/
“Afghanistan’s Post-Taliban Transition: The State of State-Building after War,” Central Asian Survey, (March–June 2006) 25(1–2), pp 1–26. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/02634930600902991
“An Introduction to a Special Issue of Strategic Insights: Analyses of the Groupe Salafiste pour la Prédication et le Combat (GSPC)” Strategic Insights, Volume V, Issue 8, (November 2006). https://ethz.ch/content/specialinterest/gess/cis/center-for-securities-studies/en/services/digital-library/publications/publication.html/32136
“The Islamic Republic of Afghanistan: An Assessment of Democratic Development” A Report Prepared for The Bertelsmann Foundation and the International Advisory Council, September 2006 (The Bertelsmann Stiftung, Gütersloh, Germany). https://calhoun.nps.edu/handle/10945/51484
“Democratic Nation Building in the Arc of Crisis: The Case of the Presidential Election in Afghanistan,” in James Russell, ed., Critical Issues Facing the Middle East Security: Security, Politics, and Economics (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2006), pp 125-146.
“Central Asian Terrorism: A Problem in Search of Definition and Policy,” with Colin Lober in Global Terrorism: Genesis, Implications, Remedial and Countermeasures, Institute of Regional Studies, Islamabad, Pakistan (ed.), pp.186-219, (Aziz-ul-Haque, Institute or Regional Studies, Islamabad, Pakistan, 2006).
“The Prospects for Post-Conflict Afghanistan: A Call of the Sirens to the Country’s Troubled Past,” Strategic Insights, Volume 5, Number 2, Monterey, CA: Center for Contemporary Conflict, Naval Post Graduate School, February 2006. (Reprinted in: Homeland Security Weekly, Vol 5, Issue 5, February 2006; National Defense University; Human Security Gateway). https://www.hsdl.org/?abstract&did=460115
“A Hard Day’s Night?: The United States and the Global War on Terror,” with James A. Russell, Comparative Strategy, 24, 2, 2005, 127-151. (Reprinted in Countering Modern Terrorism: History, Current Issues and Future Threats, pp. 239-271 (Gesamtherstellung, Germany: W. Bertelsmann Verlag, GmbH, 2005 and Brenda J. Lutz and James M. Lutz, Global Terrorism, (London: SAGE Publications, 2008). https://calhoun.nps.edu/handle/10945/39051
“Ismail Khan, Herat, and Iranian Influence,” Strategic Insights, Volume 3, Number 7 Monterey, CA: Center for Contemporary Conflict, Naval Post Graduate School, July 2004. https://ciaotest.cc.columbia.edu/olj/si/si_3_7/si_3_7_jot01.pdf
“The Loya Jirga, Ethnic Rivalries and Future Afghan Stability,’’ Strategic Insights, Volume 1, Number 6 Monterey, CA: Center for Contemporary Conflict, Naval Post Graduate School, August 2002. https://calhoun.nps.edu/handle/10945/25456
“The Task Structure of International Peace Operations, 1964-1995,” in Stuart Nagel (ed.) Handbook on Multi-National Policy Toward World Peace, Lexington Books, 2002.
“Scholastic Modeling and Simulation” Modeling and Simulation Journal On-Line, Volume 3, Number 2, Spring, 2002.
“Requirements Analysis, Mission Space Models, and the CMMS: What's This All About?” Modeling and Simulation Journal On-Line, Volume 1, Number 1, Fall, 1999.
“Confusion in the Midst of a ‘New’ Foreign Policy Force: Analyzing the Task Structure of Peace Operations,” in Ted Woodcock and D.F. Davis (eds.) Analysis for and of the Resolution of Conflict: Proceeding of the Cornwallis II Conference, Cornwallis Park, Nova Scotia, Canada: The Lester B. Pearson Canadian International Peacekeeping Training Centre, pp. 293-331, 1998.
Analysis of Peace Operations Tasks: Relevance and Factor Analysis, Fairfax, Va.: The Program on Peacekeeping Policy, George Mason University, September 1996, 150 pp.
“Old Concepts for the Assessment of a New World,” with D. Davis, The Brown Journal of World Affairs, Volume III, Issue 2, Summer/Fall, 1996. https://www.jstor.org/stable/24590161?seq=1#metadata_info_tab_contents
The Costs of Participation and Nonparticipation in the Military Technical Revolution, with David C. Isby, Bruce Russett and David Kinsella, McLean, VA: SPARTA and Washington, DC: Office of Net Assessments, Office of the Secretary of Defense, 1993, 185 pp.
“Post-Soviet Nuclear Forces and the Risk of Accidental or Unauthorized Limited Nuclear Strikes,” with David C. Isby, Fall, 1993, Strategic Review, 21 (4): 8-21.
Review and Analysis of the Foreign Availability of AT-Compatible Microcomputers: An Assessment of the Department of Commerce's Findings, Silver Spring, MD: The Orkand Corporation and Washington, DC: Office of the Secretary of Defense, Trade Security Policy, 1990, 130 pp.
Afghanistan: The Western Hinterland Provinces, with Philip E. Jones, John Mariz, Margo Grimm, and John Hill. Silver Spring, MD: The Orkand Corporation, 1989, 173 pp.
Afghanistan: The Southern Provinces, with Philip E. Jones, Margo Grimm, John Hill, Joseph Newman, and John Mariz. Silver Spring, MD: The Orkand Corporation, 1989, 263 pp.
Afghanistan: The Eastern Provinces, with Philip E. Jones, John Hill, Margo Grim, and Joseph Newman. Silver Spring, MD: The Orkand Corporation, 1988, 224 pp.
Afghanistan: The Northern Provinces, with Philip E. Jones, John Hill, Margo Grim, and Joseph Newman. Silver Spring, MD: The Orkand Corporation, 1988, 460 pp.
The Threat of Narco-Terrorism in Latin America and the Implications for the United States, with Michael Dixon. Silver Spring, MD: The Orkand Corporation, 1988, 133 pp.
“Sixty Coups in Thirty Years -- Further Evidence Regarding African Military Coups D'Etat,” with Patrick J. McGowan, 1986. Journal of Modern African Studies, 24 (3): 539-546. http://www.jstor.org/view/0022278x/ap010094/01a00100/0
“Explaining African Coups D'Etat: A Controversial Debate,” with Patrick J. McGowan, March 1986, American Political Science Review, 80: 237-249. http://www.jstor.org/view/00030554/di961020/96p0013y/0
“Forecasting African Coups D'État,” with Patrick J. McGowan, Summer, 1985. Politikon: South African Journal of Political Science, 12 (2): 3-22. https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02589348508704852
“African Military Coups D'Etat and Underdevelopment: A Quantitative Historical Analysis,” with Patrick J. McGowan, December, 1984. Journal of Modern African Studies, 22 (4): 633-667. http://www.jstor.org/view/0022278x/ap010087/01a00060/0
“Explaining African Military Coups D'Etat, 1960-1982,” with Robert O. Slater and Patrick J. McGowan, September, 1984, American Political Science Review, 78: 622-640. http://www.jstor.org/view/00030554/di961014/96p0003r/0
“Corporate Political Risk Analysis: A Critique,” in Stephen J. Andriole (ed.) Corporate Crisis Management. Princeton, NJ: Petrocelli, 1985, 30 pp.
Analysis of the Causes of Military Coups D'Etat in Sub-Saharan Africa, 1960-1982, with Patrick J. McGowan. Silver Spring, MD: The Orkand Corporation, 1983, 264 pp.
“Political-Economics of Super-Power Competition: An Analysis of Three Empirically Based Computer Simulations,” with W. L. Hollist in C. Kegley, Jr. and P. J. McGowan (eds.) Foreign Policy: USA/USSR. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage Publications, 1982, 30 pp.
Analytical Methods for Foreign Service Officers. Arlington, VA: CACI, Inc.-Federal and the Foreign Service Institute, 1981, 233 pp.
Sectoral Characteristics of Saudi Arabia: Their Business Importance to the Aerospace Industry. Arlington, VA: CACI, Inc.-Federal, 1980, 315 pp.
Analysis of Superpower Crisis Management Behavior: Technical Report, with Richard P. Clayberg. Arlington, VA: CACI, Inc.-Federal, 1980, 398 pp.
Analysis of the U.S. and Soviet Crisis Management Experience: Technical Report, with Robert B. Mahoney, Jr., et. al. Arlington, VA: CACI, Inc.-Federal, 1979, 366 pp.
“Political Consequences of International Economic Relations: Alternative Explanations of United States/Latin American Noncooperation,” with Ladd Hollist, November 1979, Journal of Politics, (41): 1125-1155. http://www.jstor.org/view/00223816/di976592/97p0550f/0
“Bibliography of Recent Foreign Policy Studies, 1974-77,” pp. 293-306 in C. W. Kegley and P. J. McGowan (eds.) Challenges to America: United States Foreign Policy in the 1980's. Sage International Yearbook of Foreign Policy Studies, Vol. 4, Beverly Hills: Sage Publications, 1979.
“The AFRICA Project and the Comparative Study of African Foreign Policy,” with Patrick J. McGowan, pp. 190-241 in M. W. Delancey (ed.) Aspects of International Relations in Africa. Bloomington, Indiana: African Studies Program, Indiana University, 1979.
“The International Politics of Food: Confusion in the Midst of a ‘New Force,’” with James N. Rosenau, Los Angeles, Institute for Transnational Studies, 1976, 22 pp. (Paper commissioned by the Center for Futures Research, University of Southern California; research project's findings reported in Selwyn Enzer, Richard Drobnick, and Steven Alter, Neither Feast nor Famine. Lexington, Mass.: D.C. Heath and Company, 1978).