A Quarterly, Peer Reviewed Online Journal

The Combating Threats Exchange staff are happy to bring you the Spring 2024 edition of CTX

Asset Publisher
From the Editor

Have you ever noticed that the autumnal and vernal equinoxes bring far deeper changes than the winter and summer solstices? When winter officially arrives, it’s already been cold for some time; when the calendar declares summer, we’re already feeling the heat. But when the sun reaches its tipping points in autumn and spring, we feel the changes on our skin and in our bones.

Read More

A Mutually Reinforcing Relationship

In order to better assess risks to the force and the mission from the tactical to the strategic level, and to improve their operational effectiveness, Special Operations Forces require more access to intelligence—both quantitatively and qualitatively than—they currently have.

Read More

Developing Mongolia’s Resiliency Through Sports, Games, and Play​

As the 2023 school year begins in Mongolia, thousands of children in early childhood education (ECE) programs and primary and secondary schools have only limited access to physical education classes. 

Read More

CTX Interview: MAJ Mareks Runts, Latvian Special Forces​

On 3 June 2022, Ian Rice of CTX spoke with Major Mareks Runts, who serves in the Latvian Special Operations Forces, about the origins of the Latvian SOF, the development of their training and doctrine, and their responses to Russia’s annexation of Crimea in 2014 and the invasion of Ukraine in February 2022.

Read More

Social Capital | Women, Peace, and Security in the International Community

Women increasingly contribute to peace and security efforts as members of armed forces, police, and government agencies. As they assume a wider range of military and decision-making roles, questions arise regarding the impact of women’s participation on functional, social, and political change.

Read More

Ethics and Insights​ | Stoicism: The Best Philosophy​

Is stoicism the best philosophy?

Read More

Publication Announcements

Dr. Tristan Volpe | Leveraging Latency: How the Weak Compel the Strong with Nuclear Technology

Read More


This journal is not an official DoD publication. The views expressed or implied within are those of the contributors and do not necessarily reflect the views of any governmental or nongovernmental organization or agency of the United States of America or any other country.


Copyright © 2024 by the author(s), except where otherwise noted. The Combating Threats Exchange journal (CTX) is a peer-reviewed, quarterly journal available free of charge to individuals and institutions. Copies of this journal and the articles contained herein may be printed or downloaded and redistributed for personal, research, or educational purposes free of charge and without permission, except if otherwise noted. Any commercial use of CTX or the articles published herein is expressly prohibited without the written consent of the copyright holder. The copyright of all articles published herein rests with the author(s) of the article, unless otherwise noted.


  • AMINA KATOR-MUBAREZ, Managing Editor
  • SALLY BAHO, Copy Editor
  • LAYOUT AND DESIGN, Graduate Education Advancement Center, Naval Postgraduate School


  • VICTOR ASAL, University of Albany SUNY
  • ANDREW GARFIELD, Joint Special Operations University
  • TIM JONES, Naval Postgraduate School
  • TROELS HENNINGSEN, Royal Danish Defense College
  • PETER MCCABE, Joint Special Operations University
  • RAJAN RAVINDRAN, Indian Army (Ret.)
  • IAN C. RICE, US Army (Ret.)
  • ANNA SIMONS, Naval Postgraduate School
  • SHYAMSUNDER TEKWANI, Asia-Pacific Center for Security Studies
  • CRAIG WHITESIDE, Naval War College


  • DIANE JONES, Naval Postgraduate School